Great Britain – country information
|Country name||Great Britain|
|Official name||United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland|
|Foundation of a state||1/1/1707|
|The highest mountains||Ben Nevis 1,343 m|
|Longest rivers||Thames 340 km|
|State system||constitutional monarchy with a bicameral parliament|
|The biggest cities||(conurbation) London (capital city) 6,825,000, Birmingham 2,625,000, Greater Manchester 2,560,000|
|Ethnicity/National Composition||British 94% (English 79.8%, Scots 9%, Irish 4%, Welsh 1.2%), Indians 1.4%, population from the Caribbean 1.0%, Pakistani 0.8%, Bangladeshi 0.2%, Chinese 0.2%, African 0.1%, other 2.2%|
|Religious affiliation||Anglicans 56%, Roman Catholics 13%, Scottish Presbyterians 7%, Methodists 4.5%, Other Christians 5.5%, Muslims 1.5%, Jews 0.8%, Hindus 0.7%, Sikhs 0.4%, others 1.0%|
|Currency||1 pound sterling = 100 new pence|
|gross domestic product (GDP)||US$36,569 (2012)|
|Average life expectancy of the population||78.54 years (2006)|
|Structure of GDP||agriculture, forestry and fishing 1.6%, mining 1.9%, industry 24.8%, construction 6.2%, services 65.5%|
Great Britain – Neighboring States
According to Abbreviationfinder, the United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy ruled by a parliamentary democracy, but without a written constitution. Law is based on laws passed by Parliament, their judicial interpretation and also common law (does not apply in Scotland).
The legislative body – the parliament consists of the Lower House (House of Commons, 635 MPs) headed by the Speaker and the Upper House (House of Lords) headed by the Lord Chancellor. The members of the first of them are elected in elections by the majority system. Most of the approximately 1,000 seats in the House of Lords are hereditary, other members are appointed, and some seats are reserved for representatives of the Church of England. The monarch’s right to veto legislation has not been used since the 18th century. Executive power rests with the government headed by the Prime Minister.
Self-governing elected bodies have counties (regions in Scotland) and lower units – counties (districts). As a result of the 1998 referendum, the government agreed to the establishment of a locally elected parliament in Scotland and a national assembly in Wales, which would no longer be governed from London.
The English, Irish, Scots and Welsh make up a mix of people with centuries of history. The English are by far the most numerous, and English is also the official language. Gaelic (an old Celtic language) survives in some parts of Scotland; the use of Welsh in Wales has boomed since it was introduced in schools.
Since 1946, immigration from Commonwealth countries, mainly from the Caribbean, India and Pakistan, has created a multiracial and culturally diverse society. The number of Muslims and residents of other faiths is increasing. 90% of the population formally profess Christianity, but there are few active believers. Britain is one of the most urbanized countries in the world. Only 8% of the population lives in the countryside. Regional differences in population density are huge. While central England has up to 1,000 inhabitants per km2, there are fewer than 10 in northern Scotland.
Location: Western Europe
Time zone: CET – 1
Total area: 243,610 km²
Land area: 241,930 km²
Water area: 1,680 km²
Length of the state border: 360 km
Bordering countries: Ireland: 360 km
Coastline: 12,429 km
Electric current: 240 V / 50 Hz
Telephone code: 00 44 (Source: Allcitycodes)
Highest point: Ben Nevis 1,343 m
Population: approx. 63.7 million residents (Countryaah, 2021)
Population growth: 0.5% per year
Population density (residents per km²): 261
Life expectancy: 78 (male), 83 (female)
Official language: English
- 60% Christians
- 4% Muslim
- 1% Hindus
- 35% other
During the summer months the average temperature is around 20 ° C. In the east of the country it is usually a little warmer than in the west.
With temperatures of around 3 ° C, winter is quite mild.
The humidity is high all year round. Precipitation must always be expected.
Currency / finance
Currency unit: pound sterling (GBP)
Division: 1 pound = 100 pence
ATMs: Available in many cities.
International credit cards: These are accepted by many hotels and shops.
Regulations: Foreign and national currencies can be imported and exported in unlimited amounts.
The following may be carried duty-free:
- 200 cigarettes or 50 cigars or 250 g of tobacco
- 1 liter of alcoholic beverages
(Information applies to people aged 18 and over)
Tourists and people in transit can bring items of personal use with them duty-free.
Due to the threat posed by international terrorism, increased security controls are in place. Longer waiting times at airports should be planned for when traveling.
As one of the leading industrial countries, the UK has a diversified economy.
Industries: chemistry, vehicle construction, aircraft construction, wood processing, mechanical engineering, oil production, shipbuilding, tourism
Natural resources: iron ore, natural gas, oil, lime, coal, farmland, salt
- Usable land: 25%
- Grain cultivation: 0%
- Pasture area: 46%
- Forests: 10%
- other: 19%
In the marshland and moors there are many different types of grass and plants that are typical of Great Britain.
The humid climate is ideal for the flora to grow.
Due to human settlement and the associated expansion of the cities, the flora was also strongly pushed back. Many forests were cut down to obtain agricultural land.
Most of the large wild animals are extinct. Only a few red deer can still be found in the forests.
Many small vertebrates, insects and bird species populate all areas of the island.
Biodiversity is also still very high in the waters in and around Great Britain.