Turkmenistan Guide

Turkmenistan Guide

Turkmenistan – country information

Country name Turkmenistan
Official name Turkmen Republic
Capital Ashgabat
Continent Asia
Area 488,100 km2
Population 5,240,000 (2013)
Foundation of a state 27/10/1991
The highest mountains Firjuza 2942 m
Longest rivers Amu Darya 2539 km (in the country 1050 km)
State system a presidential-type republic with a unicameral parliament, a de facto one-party system of government
The biggest cities Ashgabat (capital) 460,000, Chardjou 175,000
Official language Turkmen
Ethnicity/National Composition Turkmen 73%, Uzbeks 9%, Russians 8.5%, Kazakhs 2.5%, Tatars 1.0%, others 6%
Religious affiliation mostly Sunni Muslims
Currency 1 manat
gross domestic product (GDP) US$8,641 (2012)
Average life expectancy of the population 61.83 years (2006)
Structure of GDP agriculture and fishing 32%, mining and industry 26%, construction 10%, services 32%

Turkmenistan – neighboring states

State Capital Area Population
Afghanistan Kabul 652,090 km2 25,500,100
Iran Tehran 1,648,200 km2 77,288,000
Kazakhstan Astana 2,724,900 km2 17,186,000
Uzbekistan Tashkent 447,400 km2 30,183,400

Country overview

According to Abbreviationfinder, the desert republic of Turkmenistan stretches in Central Asia to the southeast from the eastern coast of the Caspian Sea to the border with Afghanistan. It is also bordered by Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan to the north and Iran to the south.

Country data

Location: Central Asia

Time zone: CET + 4 (during summer time: CET + 3)

Total area: 488,100 km²

Land area: 469,930 km²

Water area: 18,170 km²

Length of the state border: 3,736 km

Bordering countries apply to:
Afghanistan: 744 km
Iran: 992 km
Kazakhstan: 379 km
Uzbekistan: 1,621 km

Coastline: 0 km

Capital: Ashgabat

Regions: 6
Ahal Welayaty (Anew), Ashgabat, Balkan Welayaty (Balkanabat), Dashoguz Welayaty, Lebap Welayaty (Turkmenabat), Mary Welayaty

Electric current: 220 V / 50 Hz

Telephone code: 00 993 (Source: Allcitycodes)

Highest point: Gora Ayribaba 3,139 m


Population: approx. 5.2 million residents (Countryaah, 2021)

Population growth: 1.1% per year

Population density (residents per km²): 1

Life expectancy: 66 (male), 73 (female)

Official language: Turkmen


  • 89% Muslim
  • 9% Orthodox
  • 2% other


The summer months are always quite warm with temperatures around 30 ° C. Values ​​above 40 ° C are occasionally reached.


In winter the average value is around 3 ° C. On some days the temperature drops below the freezing point.

Currency / finance

Currency unit: Turkmen Manat (TMT)

Classification: 1 manat = 100 teňňe

ATMs: not available

International credit cards: Only accepted in individual hotels and banks in Ashgabat.

Regulations: There is no limit to the amount of foreign currencies that can be imported. The export is permitted in the amount of the declared import. There is an obligation to declare.

The import and export of the local currency is not permitted.

Customs regulations

The following may be carried duty-free:

  • 200 cigarettes or 200 g of other tobacco products
  • 1 liter of alcoholic beverages

(Tobacco products for people over the age of 18, alcoholic beverages over the age of 21)

Tourists and people in transit can bring items of personal use with them duty-free.

Travel advice

There is currently no country-specific safety notice for Turkmenistan.


The remaining reserves of natural gas and oil are very large.

The economy is also geared towards the manufacture and export of cotton.

Turkmenistan has to import almost all other products needed for life.

Industries: natural gas and oil production, food production, textiles

Natural resources: natural gas, oil, coal, salt

Land use:

  • Usable land: 3%
  • Grain cultivation: 0%
  • Pasture area: 63%
  • Forests: 8%
  • other: 26%
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