Since the century V, with the constitution of the Eastern Roman Empire, the art that over time will be defined as Byzantine developed in the territory of present-day Turkey and in particular in Constantinople , of which conspicuous testimonies remain that allow us to trace a historical profile. In the sec. V Byzantine art, still strongly linked to classical traditions, had its major center in the imperial court, whose courtly style radiated throughout the Empire through the patronage granted by the sovereigns to the new churches. In the buildings that remain from that period, alongside the persistence of classical elements, derived from the basilicas of the imperial age, we note the introduction of others of oriental derivation, particularly Sassanid: domes, brick arches, barrel vaults without reinforcement, etc. Similar trends can be found in sculpture, of which works of classical derivation have come down to us (Sarigüzel sarcophagus) but also some, such as the base of the obelisk of Theodosius in Constantinople, which already present a frontal arrangement of the figures. As for the mosaic, the floor decorations of the imperial palace reveal the work of workers still close to the Hellenistic ways, of consummate technical skill. The sec. VI, and in particular the Justinian age, was the period of greatest artistic splendor for Constantinople. The architectural production concentrated in the construction of martyria was very intense(Saints Sergius and Bacchus in Constantinople) and large churches (San Giovanni in Ephesus, cruciform, with large domes; Hierapolis urban church).
A masterpiece of the Justinian age is the basilica of Santa Sofia in Constantinople (built in 532 by Antemio di Tralles and Isidoro di Mileto) in which Sassanid elements (the large dome) and classical elements (marble wall coverings) are combined. In the field of sculpture, capitals (worked with a drill) and decorations refer to the classical tradition (especially the capitals of Santa Sofia). There are also some interesting examples of the miniature, with a lively coloristic taste. In the sec. VII-VIII, the prolonged wars and the violence of the iconoclastic struggle they reflected heavily on art, the production of which was modest. Very few constructions of the time, while the mosaic decoration was limited to abstract motifs, of geometric or symbolic taste (rock chapel of Alahan Manastír, churches of Göreme in Cappadocia, Santa Irene in Constantinople). A significant recovery occurred in the sec. IX and X, which saw the affirmation, in the architecture, of the Greek cross plan with dome (church of the Mother of God in Constantinople) and the introduction of new structures such as the deacon and the narthex. The images returned to be admitted in the churches, but the figures were expressed with a strongly hieratic and stylized taste (frescoes of the churches of Göreme). Icon painting was of minor importance, while a high level reached the miniature, the development of which probably began within the monastery of Studios. Of great interest, in the century. X, the development of Armenian art, characterized in architecture by stone churches of massive and severe structure, with a cone-shaped dome and rough sculptural decorations. From the period of the Comnenian emperors(11th-12th century) are the remains of foundations, mosaics, but above all icons and miniatures, which show the prevalence of the rigid and austere taste that had characterized the last phase of the Macedonian period. In the sec. XII the dominion of the Seljuk Turks was consolidated in Anatolia, to whom we owe the first significant testimonies of Islamic art in Turkey. According to ezinesports, they are mainly military and religious buildings (mosques, madrāse) or in any case of public interest (caravanserais) to characterize their building activity, the greatest examples of which are today in Konya. A Seljuk feature is the substitution of stone for brick, while the decorative motifs (carved portals, decorative terracotta and ceramic coverings) are of Persian inspiration. The Seljuk influence was also noticeable in the Byzantine art of the Paleologians in İstanbul (Constantine’s palace). Of particular importance is the Byzantine painting of the century. XIV, of which the greatest example are the frescoes and mosaics of the monastery of Chora in Constantinople, restored in 1332. The Islamization of Turkey, begun by the Seljuks, was completed in the century. XV by the Ottomans. The first capital, Bursa, preserves some fourteenth-century buildings, including the Ulu Cami mosque with twenty domes; other mosques of the century. XIV, characterized by the T-shaped plan derived from the madrasas of the Seljuk age, are found in İznik, Ephesus, Miletus. However, the artistic development in the century was much greater.
XV. The T-shaped typology is found in the first large mosque built in Edirne by Sultan Murād II (1435-36). The Seljuk influence is also evident in the decoration, with the splendid glazed ceramic coatings, blue and sky blue, due to the so-called Masters of Tabriz, probably Turks of Iranian origin, who decisively influenced the subsequent development of the İznik pottery workshops. With the century XVI the mosque of Bāyazīd II indicates a return to Byzantine-style ways, with clear references to Hagia Sophia. The greatest architect of the time was Sinān, to which high-level constructions are owed, such as the splendid Suleiman mosque in Edirne, the Selimiye and the Mihrimah in İstanbul. The ceramic art was maintained at the highest level, which is responsible for the splendid decorations of many mosques. In the sec. XVII other splendid mosques were erected in İstanbul, including that of Sultan Ahmed I and that of Valide, decorated with beautiful ceramics. Far less numerous civil buildings have come down to us, although the intense construction activity of the century is known. XVI-XVII in various parts of the Empire. Finally, the craftsmanship of metals, carpets and miniature art are noteworthy. In the sec. XVIII Turkey opened to European influences, especially in architecture, where the derivations from the Baroque and Rococo tastes are evident. Worthy of mention are in particular the Nur-u Osmaniye and Laleli mosques and especially the Topkapı, the palace of the sultans, more linked to the Turkish tradition; we should also mention the numerous, beautiful fountains, many of which have come down to our days (they existed, in İstanbul, 404). Starting from the sec. XIX Turkish art, while maintaining some of its specific characteristics, has increasingly entered the European cultural context. The mosques and palaces built in İstanbul in the nineteenth century, such as the palace of Dolmabagce, derive their style directly from French-type eclecticism. Subsequently, the collapse of the Turkish Empire and the advent of the republic led to the introduction in Turkey of rational architecture, the first manifestations of which date back to 1930. Worthy of mention are some intelligent regulatory plans, in particular that of Bursa, which have reconcile the urban expansion with the preservation of environmental and historical characteristics. While the figurative art of the last two centuries has remained on modest levels, inevitable in a culture in which the traditional Islamic suspicion of figurative representations is in force, some forms of craftsmanship, such as carpets, have been able to maintain their traditional quality level. (especially note i Anatolian carpets). Western abstract art spread to Turkey by the painter Sabri Berkel (1907-1993) and the sculptor Hadi Bara (1906-1971). Among the exponents of contemporary Turkish painting we remember Erdal Alantar (b.1932), Sadan Bezeyis (b.1926) and Devrim Erbil (b.1937), with the sculptors Sadi Calik (1917-1984) and Ilhan Koman (1923-1986). The newest name of contemporary Turkish art is that of the Turkish-side Cypriot Huseyin Caglayan (b.1970), artist and stylist who lives in London and who represented Turkey at the 51st Venice Biennale (2005) with a video that mixes anthropology, geography and identity research, The absent presence, starring the English actress Tilda Swinton. Finally, it should not be forgotten that the great love of Turkish craftsmanship for sumptuous fabrics and precious shapes has translated in recent years into a growing presence of Turkish designers among the most established names in international fashion and design, such as Rifat Ozbek and young Bern Ackasoy.