Double-sided industries related to the Acheulean are known in some sites, such as Koum el-Majene and Sidi Zin near El Kef. The Middle Paleolithic is attested by numerous findings on the surface or in the layer. Among these we remember the Mousterian near Gafsa, in Ain Meterchem and in the site of El Guettar, with fauna of rhinoceros, camels, bovids, etc.; a singular and complex conical structure formed by spheroidal stones has been found in this site, possibly connected to the presence of artesian springs in the locality. Industries of the Ateriano they are known in some sites, for example in Sidi el Ferjani, Sidi Mansour and Wadi el Akarit. The upper Paleolithic is attested, among other things, in the aforementioned localities of El Guettar and Sidi Mansour; Iberomaurusian industries have been recognized in Ouchtata (Nefza), Zarath (Gabès) and other locations. There are frequent snails and occurrences of lithic materials referable to the Capsian: Bortal Fakher near Gafsa, with C14 dating between 7600 and 6930 years from now, El Mekhta, also near Gafsa, with displays of furniture art on plaques, Chabet el Bakrer near Kasserine etc. Flowering in Tunisian territory but spreading soon throughout North Africa and in more inland areas, it is the Capsian cultural complex identified in Gafsa and dating back to a final phase of Paleolithic times.
Since ancient times Tunisia was inhabited by populations of the Europoid type, called Libi by the Egyptians and by the Greeks and Numidians by the Romans. Of all the centers founded by the Phoenicians in North Africa, the two most important cities were Utica and Carthage, whose territory included much of present-day Tunisia. At the end of the century. III a. C. two kingdoms of Numidia were formed around this territory, then unified by Siface (206-205 BC) in a domain that included southern Tunisia and a large part of Algeria and Morocco. Its kings were constantly involved in the Punic wars, as friends or enemies of the Romans. After the collapse of the Punic Empire, the territory of the destroyed Carthage became a Roman province called “Africa”: here the Romans developed large agricultural and urban works and Carthage was rebuilt. During the decline of the empire, Tunisia was occupied by the Vandals (430-534). Then taken over by the Byzantines and badly governed, it fell into the hands of the Arabs (VII century). With the name of Ifrīqiyah, the Arabs indicated Tunisia, Tripolitania and eastern Algeria; and the city of Kairouan, which they founded, was the capital of this new domain. In the year 800, the Arab Ibrāhīm Ibn el Aghlab, governor of Ifrīqiyah, rebelled against the Caliph of Baghdad founding the first independent dynasty in the region, which lasted until 909, and carried out the conquest of Sicily (827-877). Instead, they were the following three Berber dynasties, the obaditi or Fatimids (909-1171), the Almohad dynasty (1160-1207) and Hafsids (1207-1574). The ruler obadita al Muʽizz conquered the whole of the Maghreb and finally Egypt (969), where he founded the city of Cairo.
According to remzfamily, the Fatimites also established themselves in Syria. Later Egypt was lost to the Ayyubites, while the Western dominions fell into the power of Berber groups. The great legacy of al Muʽizz was restored from the almohad Ibn Tumart, from the Atlantic to Egypt, but Sicily passed to the Normans. Under the hafsids, which became independent from Tunis, the region acquired great prosperity and Tunis became an important cultural center as well. At the beginning of the century. XVI the ports of Tunisia became a refuge for Turkish pirates, aided by the sultans of Constantinople. The corsairs ended up remaining masters of Algiers, Biserta and Tunis, for the ultimate benefit of the Turks, who were able to assert their sovereignty over the region (1574). In 1705 the commander of the Janissaries Ḥusayn proclaimed himself bey, starting the Ḥusayinid dynasty. In the second half of the nineteenth century, Tunisia became the object of a great diplomatic match between the European powers, with the aim of dominating the Mediterranean, but France was resolved in a coup d’état, occupying Tunisia with an expeditionary force and imposing on the bey its protectorate (Treaty of Bardo, May 12, 1881; Marsa Convention, June 8, 1883). In the early years of the century. XX nationalist movements began, which took shape in 1920 with the founding of the Liberal Constitutional Party (in abbreviated form Destour), which demanded political rights for Tunisians. After long and hard struggles, the nationalists first succeeded in obtaining greater internal autonomy and, finally, mainly thanks to Habib Burghiba, national independence (March 20, 1956). In 1942, during the Second World War, Tunisia was used as a base by the Germans in the fighting against the Allies in Algeria: the country was the scene of a bitter battle. In April of the same year Burghiba was appointed prime minister. In July 1957 the National Assembly deposed the bey, abrogated the monarchy and proclaimed Habib Burghiba president. In 1959 the new Constitution was promulgated. From that date (until 1987) Tunisia lived under the tutelage of Burghiba, who in 1974 had himself proclaimed president for life, designating Hedi Nouira as his successor. In 1978 the first cracks appeared in the Tunisian political framework: after violent incidents in the streets, the government arrested the leader trade union Habib Achour, head of the General Union of Tunisian Workers (UGL Tunisia).