Browsed by
Tag: Afghanistan

According to localcollegeexplorer, Afghanistan has a long and rich history, stretching back to the stone age when the region was inhabited by nomadic hunter-gatherers. The region was known as Ariana in ancient times and was part of the Persian Empire from around 600 BCE. In 330 BCE Alexander the Great conquered it, bringing Hellenistic culture and language to the area. During this period Buddhism and Zoroastrianism were also introduced. The Maurya Empire took control in 305 BCE, followed by the Greco-Bactrian kingdom in 250 BCE. The Kushan Empire ruled from 60-375 CE, during which time Buddhism flourished in Afghanistan. From this point on Afghanistan was invaded by a number of different powers including the Sassanids, Arabs, Turks and Mongols. In 1747 Ahmed Shah Durrani established an Afghan empire that included present day Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran and parts of Central Asia. This empire lasted until 1826 when it became part of British India until 1947 when it gained independence as a monarchy under King Zahir Shah. A series of civil wars during the 1970s saw a Soviet invasion in 1979 followed by an Islamic fundamentalist regime that took control in 1996 until 2001 when US forces overthrew them after 9/11 attacks on America. Since then Afghanistan has been struggling to rebuild its economy and establish a stable government while facing continued threats from terrorist groups such as Al Qaeda and Taliban insurgents. Afghanistan has about 20 different ethnic groups. Three quarters of the population belongs to the Indo-European groups. The most numerous are the 7 million Pashtos (Pashtu ‘s or ‘true’ Afghans), related to the Pathans (Pakhtus) in Pakistan. Their language is Pashto. This is followed by the Tajiks, 2.5 million, who speak Dari (Old Persian). There are also the Char Aimaq (Dari speaking), the Baluchis, the Nuristani and the Sikhs. The Turko-Mongolian groups include the Uzbeks, 1.2 million, the Turkmen, the Hazara (Dari speaking) and the Kyrgyz. Only estimates exist about the population. Approx. 1.5 million live in the cities; there are 3 million nomads. The most densely populated areas are the high plateau of Kabul (422 inhabit. per km2) and the lowlands of Djalalabad (82 inhabit. per km2). The largest cities after Kabul are Kandahar (120000), Herat (110000), Kunduz (100000), Baghlan (92000) and Charika (83700). There are more than 40 cities with more than 10,000 inhabitants. Religion. The vast majority of the population professes Islam in one of the main directions: Sunnis (about 90%) and Shiites (about 10%). There are religious minorities, including the Sikhs. Healthcare. In 1971 Afghanistan had about one doctor for every 19000 inhabitants. There are 55 hospitals with a total of 2,479 beds (60% of them in Kabul province). Almost half of the children die in the first year of life, half of the rest die before the age of 12. In 2010, Afghanistan was still recovering from decades of war and political unrest. The country had been in a state of conflict since the Soviet invasion in 1979, and the civil war that followed in the 1990s. The Taliban had taken control of much of the country in 1996, and were still a major force in 2010. The US-led invasion in 2001 had driven out the Taliban, but they maintained a presence throughout Afghanistan. The US-backed government was struggling to maintain control over much of the country due to ongoing Taliban insurgency. The economy of Afghanistan was heavily dependent on foreign aid during this period, with international aid organizations providing most basic services such as healthcare and education. The economy was also hampered by widespread corruption and weak governance structures, leading to high levels of poverty and unemployment. Despite these challenges, there were signs of progress with infrastructure projects such as road construction underway throughout the country. Education for girls had also become increasingly available after years of restrictions under Taliban rule. In 2010, there were around 8 million children enrolled in school, with girls accounting for nearly 40% of students enrolled at primary level schools. Check estatelearning for Afghanistan in 1999.

Afghanistan War and Politics

Afghanistan War and Politics

The so-called proxy war This led to disputes and ultimately to intervention by the Soviet Union, which wanted to consolidate its interests in Afghanistan. The Soviet Union has been providing Afghanistan with economic support since the 1950s. The country was on the border with what was then the Soviet Union. In order to suppress the influence of radical Islam in the region and at the same time strengthen socialism, soldiers of the Soviet Union marched into Afghanistan in 1979. As…

Read More Read More

Afghanistan Overview

Afghanistan Overview

Animals and Plants What animals and plants are there in Afghanistan? The consequences of the war are still evident in Afghanistan today and are causing problems for the flora and fauna. Important habitats have disappeared or been destroyed. Afghanistan is characterized by steppe landscapes. So there are the steppe shrubs typical of this landscape. Dense stands of trees can only be found in a few regions, as many forests have been cut down over the past 25 years. Pistachio trees,…

Read More Read More

Afghanistan Guide

Afghanistan Guide

Afghanistan – country information Country name Afghanistan Official name Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan Capital Kabul Continent Asia Area 652,090 km2 Population 25,500,100 (2013) Foundation of a state 19/8/1919 The highest mountains Nošak 7485 m Longest rivers Hilmand (part) 1400 km State system an Islamic republic with multiple parties and a transitional legislature The biggest cities Kabul (capital) 2,200,000, Kandahar 340,000, Herat 250,000 Official language Pashto, Dari (Afghan Persian) Ethnicity/National Composition Pashtun 54%, Tajik 21%, Uzbek 8.5%, Hazara 8.5%, Aymak 3%,…

Read More Read More