Syria Guide

Syria Guide

Syria – country information

Country name Syria
Official name Syrian Arab Republic
Capital Damascus
Continent Asia
Area 185,180 km2
Population 21,898,000 (2013)
Foundation of a state 17/04/1946
The highest mountains Jabal al-Sheikh (Hermon) 2814 m
Longest rivers Euphrates 2720 km (in the country 575 km)
State system a republic with a unicameral parliament and multiple parties integrated in a united front
The biggest cities Dimash al-Sham (capital) 1,625,000, Halab 1,575,000, Hims 580,000
Official language Arabic
Ethnicity/National Composition Arabs 91%, Kurds 5%, others 4%
Religious affiliation Muslims 91%, Christians 8%, others 1%
Currency 1 Syrian pound (SYP) = 100 piastres
Average life expectancy of the population 70.32 years (2006)
Structure of GDP agriculture and fishing 27%, mining 14%, industry 6%, construction 3.5%, services 55.5%

Syria – neighboring states

State Capital Area Population
Iraq Baghdad 438,317 km2 34,035,000
Israel Jerusalem 22,145 km2 8,146,300
Jordan Amman 89,342 km2 6,558,900
Lebanon Beirut 10,400 km2 4,822,000
Turkey Ankara 783,562 km2 76,667,864

Country overview

According to Abbreviationfinder, Syria lies at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea. It borders Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, Israel to the southwest, and Lebanon to the west. Since the end of World War I, when Syria’s borders were drawn by the Allies, the country has played a significant role in the Middle East, with a hard-line government of Arab nationalism bringing Syria into frequent conflict with its neighbors, especially Israel.

Syria is a state in the Middle East. Common borders in the southwest – with Lebanon and Israel, in the south – with Jordan, in the east – with Iraq, in the north – with Turkey. The total length of the borders is 2414 km.

The capital is Damascus. The official language is Arabic. Religion – Islam. Telephone code +963.

The climate is arid, summers are dry and hot, and winters are mild (snow sometimes falls in the highlands). The average annual rainfall does not exceed 100 mm. The temperature in winter is +7*С, in summer +27*С.

The modern statehood of Syria is a little over 60 years old, but civilization originated here as early as the 4th millennium BC. e. Damascus is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world.

Resorts and sights of Syria

The territory of the state is heterogeneous. The northwestern territories bordering on Turkey are occupied by the spurs of the Taurus Mountains. The coastal zone is rift, with the Al-Ghabbi depression stretching parallel to the coast, along which the second largest river in Syria, the Orontes, flows.
From the side of the coast of the depression is the Jabal-an-Nisairiya mountain range, dividing the country into a humid western part and an arid eastern one. The fertile coastal plain is located in northwestern Syria (extending 130 km from north to south along the Mediterranean coast from the Turkish to the Lebanese border). Almost all of the country’s agriculture is concentrated in this area.

The highest point in Syria is Jabal al-Sheikh, which is mentioned in the Bible as Mount Hermon. To the south of the mountains is the Syrian desert – Badiyat Ashsham. In the east, Syria is crossed by the Euphrates. In 1973, a dam was built in the upper reaches of the river, which led to the formation of a reservoir called Asada Lake. In the areas along the Euphrates, agriculture is widespread.

In the northeast, along the border with Turkey, the second main river of the Middle East, the Tigris, flows.

Interesting Facts

Syrian civilization appeared 4000 BC. As one of the oldest states in the world, Syria has revived many civilizations and cultures.

Damascus has been one of the world’s centers for the production of bladed weapons from “Damascus steel” since ancient times.

A major problem is the high unemployment rate, which stood at 12.3% in 2011.

Country data

Location: Middle East

Time zone: CET + 1 (during summer time: CET)

Total area: 185,180 km²

Land area: 183,630 km²

Water area: 1,550 km²

Length of the state border: 2,253 km

Iraq: 605 km
Israel: 76 km
Jordan: 375 km
Lebanon: 375 km
Turkey: 822 km

Coastline: 193 km

Capital: Damascus

Provinces: 14
Al Hasakah, Al Ladhiqiyah, Al Qunaytirah, Ar Raqqah, As Suwayda ‘, Dar’a, Dayr az Zawr, Dimashq, Halab, Hamah, Hims, Idlib, Rif Dimashq, Tartus

Electricity: 110, 220 V / 50 Hz

Telephone code: 00 963 (Source: Allcitycodes)

Highest point: Mount Hermon 2,814 m


Population: approx. 17.9 million residents (Countryaah, 2021)

Population growth: -9.7% per year

Population density (residents per km²): 97

Life expectancy: 61 (male), 76 (female)

Official language: Arabic


  • 87% Muslim
  • 13% other



  • very warm, with temperatures up to over 30 ° C
  • hardly any rainfall


  • mild to cold
  • very rainy

In the desert regions, the temperature fluctuations between day and night are particularly large.


Currency / finance

Currency unit: Syrian Lira (SYP)

Classification: 1 lira = 100 piasters (only rarely in use)

ATMs: There are a few ATMs in Damascus and Aleppo.

International credit cards: These are very rarely accepted.

Regulations: There is no limit to the amount of foreign currencies that can be imported. A declaration is required from an equivalent value of US $ 5,000. Export is permitted up to the amount of the declared import.

The local currency may not be imported or exported.

Since it is almost impossible to exchange the local currency back, you should only exchange the amounts actually required.

Customs regulations

The following may be carried duty-free:

  • 200 cigarettes or 25 cigars or 250 grams of tobacco
  • 0.5 liters of alcoholic beverages
  • small amounts of perfume

(Information applies to people aged 18 and over)

Tourists and people in transit can bring items of personal use with them duty-free.

The export of antiques is prohibited. Counterfeits are often sold at the historical sites and attractions.

Travel advice

Warnings are given against traveling to Syria. All Germans are asked to leave the country.

The German embassy in Damascus is closed. Consular assistance cannot be guaranteed even in an emergency.

If your passport contains an Israeli stamp, you will be denied entry to Syria (despite a valid visa).

Behavioral advice

Photographing military objects of any kind is strictly forbidden. Violation threatens immediate arrest and heavy penalties. The term military object is interpreted broadly by the authorities (e.g. also for civil airports).


A large part of the population is employed in agriculture, the main export of which is cotton.

Fruit, vegetables and some types of grain are grown to supply the country itself.

The main source of income for foreign exchange, however, is the plentiful oil reserves.

In addition, mainly food and textiles are exported.

Industries: Oil production and processing, agriculture

Natural resources: chromium, iron ores, petroleum, gypsum, manganese, phosphates, salt, hydropower

Land use:

  • Land: 28%
  • Grain cultivation: 4%
  • Pasture area: 43%
  • Forests: 3%
  • other: 22%
Comments are closed.