Sudan is a country in Northeast Africa. Common borders with Egypt – in the north, Libya – in the northwest, Chad – in the west, the Central African Republic – in the southwest, South Sudan – in the south, Eritrea and Ethiopia – in the southeast.
The capital is Khartoum. The official language is Arabic, English. Currency – Egyptian pound.
The climate is subequatorial, desert.
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan – Condominium of Egypt and the United Kingdom in 1899 – 1956. Sudan is located in North Africa, bordered by the Red Sea in the northeast and has a coastline of 853 km along the seashore.
With an area of 1,886,068 km2, Sudan is the third largest country in Africa and the fifteenth largest in the world. The relief of the country is mainly flat plains, dotted with several mountain ranges, in the west it is Jebel Marra, in the south along the Nile the relief is somewhat lower, in the east the mountains of the Red Sea rise. The relief – the fertile valley of the Nile River – separates the Libyan desert in the west from the high-altitude Nubian desert in the east.
Since 2003, as a result of internecine clashes in the province of Darfur, about 300 thousand people have died and almost 3 million have become refugees. Several insurgent groups from among the indigenous African agricultural peoples operate in the area. They demand the protection of the African population from the Janjaweed armed detachments, formed by nomadic Arabs, who seize livestock, land and water sources.
The political system is a military republic. The head of state since 1989 is General Omar Hassan el-Bashir. Export -: oil, cotton, gum arabic, sesame seeds, peanuts, sorghum.
In ancient times, the territory of modern Sudan was called Kush, and later – Nubia.
For eight thousand years BC. a tribe that belonged to the Neolithic culture settled on the territory of Sudan. Several fortified settlements were established, with hunting and fishing on the Nile being supplanted by grain gathering and grazing. In the fifth millennium BC. migration from the Sahara, where the drought began, led to the emergence of Neolithic tribes in the Nile Valley, who brought agriculture with them.
Over the following centuries, the development of this genetically and culturally mixed society led to the emergence of a social hierarchy and the formation of the kingdom of Kush with its capital at Kermi in 1700 BC. On the territory of Sudan there were small Christian kingdoms (Aloa, Mucurra, Nobatia).
In the 640s, Arab influence began to penetrate from Egypt. The area between the Nile and the Red Sea was rich in gold and emeralds, and Arab gold diggers began to appear here. The Arabs brought Islam with them.
Location: North Africa
Time zone: CET + 2 (during summer time: CET + 1)
Total area: 1,861,484 km²
Length of the state border: 6,751 km
Egypt: 1,275 km
Ethiopia: 769 km
Eritrea: 605 km
Libya: 383 km
South Sudan: 2,184 km
Chad: 1,360 km
Central African Republic: 175 km
Coastline: 853 km
Al Bahr al Ahmar (Red Sea), Al Jazira (Gezira), Al Khartoum (Khartoum), Al Qadarif (Gedaref), An Nil al Abyad (White Nile), An Nil al Azraq (Blue Nile), Ash Shimaliyya (Northern), Gharb Darfur (Western Darfur), Janub Darfur (Southern Darfur), Janub Kurdufan (Southern Kordofan), Kassala, Nahr an Nil (River Nile), Sharq Darfur (Eastern Darfur), Shimal Darfur (Northern Darfur), Shimal Kurdufan (Northern Kordofan), Sinnar, Wasat Darfur (Central Darfur)
Telephone code: 00 249 (Source: Allcitycodes)
Highest point: Jabal Marrah 3,071 m
Population: approx. 35.5 million residents (Countryaah, 2021)
Population growth: 1.8% per year
Population density (residents per km²): 19
Life expectancy: 61 (male), 65 (female)
Official language: Arabic, English
- 70% Muslim
- 30% other
Due to the size of the country there are different climatic regions:
In summer it is very dry and hot with temperatures of 33 – 40 ° C. Record temperatures occasionally exceed 50 ° C.
In the winter time it is a little cooler, but there is hardly any precipitation here either.
Middle of the country:
It is very humid and hot (over 30 ° C) in summer (April – October). The temperatures only drop slightly at night. From the end of June there are often numerous rains.
In winter (November – March) it is consistently dry and also a little cooler during the day (over 20 ° C). At night the temperatures drop down to 10 ° C.
It is relatively dry and warm all year round, with temperatures between 28 ° C and 38 ° C. Rain often only falls in the summer months.
Coastal region: The
temperatures here are very high all year round. Only in the winter months do they drop to a comfortable level. Most of the rain falls in July and August. Due to the proximity to the water, the humidity is always very noticeable here.
Currency / finance
Currency unit: Sudanese pound (SDG)
Division: 1 pound = 100 piastres
ATMs: not available
International credit cards: These are only accepted at Hilton Hotel and Palace Hotel in Khartoum. Otherwise no acceptance.
Regulations: The import and export of the local currency is not permitted.
There is no limit to the amount of foreign currencies that can be imported. The export is limited to the amount of the declared import.
You should only exchange money at official exchange offices and keep all receipts in a safe place.
When changing money on the black markets, there are sometimes very high fines. Every exchange must be entered in the declaration form.
Since January 9th, 2007 the new Sudanese pound has been the national currency in Sudan.
The following may be carried duty-free:
- 200 cigarettes or 50 cigars or 450 g of tobacco
- small amounts of perfume
These items must be carried in hand luggage!
(Information applies to people aged 18 and over)
Tourists and people in transit can bring items of personal use with them duty-free.
There is an import ban on alcoholic beverages, pork and all kinds of pornographic newspapers.
Travel to the border areas with Egypt, Libya, Chad and the Dafur and South Kordofan regions is not recommended.
There are often armed robberies and robberies.
In isolated cases, there are also arbitrary measures by the security organs (police, army). The state order is very unstable.
The supply of food, fuel and medical care is not guaranteed in all parts of the country.
For all trips outside the capital Khartoum, foreigners need a travel permit.
The south of Sudan is considered a yellow fever infection area. A corresponding prior protective vaccination is strongly recommended here.
Please note that you are in Sudan in an Islamic country. Please choose your clothes accordingly.
For filming and photography you need a permit, which must be obtained from the Sudanese Tourist Corporation in Khartoum.
If the law is violated, then Islamic law also applies to foreigners. This includes very severe penalties.
Caught alcohol users are publicly flogged. Trafficking in illegal drugs is punishable by death.
Sudan is one of the poorest countries in the world.
Although there are many natural resources and large parts of the country are fertile, the state is heavily indebted and the food situation of the population is sometimes catastrophic.
Industries: cotton processing, oil production, textiles, cement production, sugar cultivation
Natural resources: iron ores, petroleum, gold, copper, marble, silver, uranium, hydropower, zinc
- Usable land: 5%
- Grain cultivation: 0%
- Pasture area: 46%
- Forests: 19%
- other: 30%