According to microedu, Japan is a democratic unitary legal state with a parliamentary monarchy as a form of government. The 1947 Constitution is in force. The territory of Japan is divided into 47 prefectures classified into four types: to (Tokyo), fu (Osaka, Kyoto), do (Hokkaido), and ken (43 other prefectures). The island of Hokkaido is entirely included in the prefecture of the same name. The following prefectures are located on the island of Honshu: Aichi, Akita, Aomori, Wakayama, Gifu, Gunma, Ibaraki, Iwate, Ishikawa, Kanagawa, Kyoto, Mie, Miyagi, Nagano, Nara, Niigata, Okayama, Osaka, Saitama, Shiga, Shizuoka, Shimane, Chiba, Tokyo, Tochigi, Tottori, Toyama, Fukui, Fukushima, Hyogo, Hiroshima, Yamagata, Yamaguchi and Yamanashi. Prefectures of the island of Shikoku – Kagawa, Kochi, Tokushima, Ehime; the islands of Kyushu – Kagoshima, Kumamoto, Miyazaki, Nagasaki, Oita, Saga, Fukuoka; Okinawa islands – Okinawa.
The principles of state administration are determined by the current Constitution (the supreme law of the country), which granted sovereign power to the people, guaranteed respect for fundamental human rights (respect for all people as individuals, equality of all people before the law, the right to elect public officials and remove them from office, the right to treat peaceful petitions for damages, for the removal of public officials, for the introduction, repeal or amendment of laws, decrees and regulations, freedom of thought and conscience, assembly and association, speech, press and all other forms of expression, choice and change of residence, profession, travel abroad and renunciation of citizenship, scientific activity, the right to maintain a minimum level of healthy and cultural life, to education, to work,collective bargaining and other collective action).
The Constitution specifically stipulates the status of the emperor, who is a symbol of the state and the unity of the people, but is not endowed with powers related to the exercise of state power, the areas of competence of the parliament, the cabinet of ministers and local governments are defined. A separate section is devoted to public finance management.
The highest body of state power and the only body of legislative power is Parliament, which consists of two chambers: the House of Representatives and the House of Councilors. The highest body of executive power is the Cabinet of Ministers, which is led by the Prime Minister and is endowed with the right of legislative initiative. The Constitution of Japan does not specify the figure of the head of state. In accordance with Article 7, the emperor exercises numerous functions (promulgation of amendments to the Constitution, laws, government decrees and treaties, convocation of Parliament, dissolution of the House of Representatives, announcement of general parliamentary elections, confirmation of the appointments and resignations of state ministers and other officials, powers and credentials of ambassadors and envoys, general and private amnesties, mitigations and reprieve and restoration of rights, awarding awards, etc.), but not otherwise than on the advice and approval of the Cabinet of Ministers. This allows us to conclude that the actual head of state is the prime minister. He is also the head of the highest body of executive power – the Cabinet of Ministers. The Speaker of the House of Representatives and the Speaker of the House of Councilors of Parliament are considered to be the heads of the highest legislative body.
In addition to the prominent figures named in the section on Japan’s post-war history, there are three premiers of the con. 20th century and early 21st century — M. Hosokawa, R. Hashimoto and Dz. Koizumi, who carried out radical socio-economic reforms with varying degrees of intensity. A particularly broad program of reforms was developed by J. Koizumi, who carried it out in the fight against conservatives from the highest bureaucratic circles and from his own Liberal Democratic Party (LDP).
General elections for members of the House of Representatives take place either at the end of the four-year period of its work, or when Parliament is dissolved by the Prime Minister. The basis of the current electoral system for the House of Representatives is formed by small constituencies, each of which selects one representative (majority option), and 11 large constituencies, where representatives are chosen based on the number of votes received by each party (proportional option). Elections to the House of Councilors take place every 3 years for members of the House whose six-year period of residence there has expired (thus half of the membership is elected), as well as to fill vacancies. Each prefecture is a multi-member constituency for elections to the House of Councilors. In addition, a nationwide constituency is formed, where voters vote for any of the parties. 100 deputies from this constituency are selected from party lists in proportion to the number of votes received by the parties. Prefectural governors, mayors and heads of cities (si), townships (machi) and villages (mura), as well as members of municipal assemblies are elected every 4 years after the expiration of their term, with direct elections taking place simultaneously throughout the country. Municipalities enjoy the right to administer their property, to conduct business and to exercise administration within their boundaries. Municipal assemblies may adopt normative acts of local significance. Laws relating to a municipality can only be passed by parliament with the consent of the majority of their inhabitants, determined by referendum. conduct business and exercise control within its borders. Municipal assemblies may adopt normative acts of local significance. Laws relating to a municipality can only be passed by parliament with the consent of the majority of their inhabitants, determined by referendum. conduct business and exercise control within its borders. Municipal assemblies may adopt normative acts of local significance. Laws relating to a municipality can only be passed by parliament with the consent of the majority of their inhabitants, determined by referendum.