Russia Guide

Russia Guide

Russia – country information

Country name Mask
Official name Russian federation
Capital Moscow
continent Asia, Europe
Area 17,098,200 km
Population 143 700 000 (2014)
Foundation of a state 24. 8. 1991
The highest mountains Elbrus 5,633 m, Belucha 4,506 m
Longest rivers Amur 4416 km, Lena 4400 km, Ob-Katun’ 4620 km, Genesis 4092 km
The largest lakes Baikal 31,500 km 2
State system a federal pluralist republic of the presidential type with a bicameral parliament
The biggest cities Moscow (capital) 8,675,000, Saint Petersburg 4,825,000, Nizhny Novgorod 1,405,000, Novosibirsk 1,400,000, Yekaterinburg 1,330,000, Samara 1,210,000
Official language Russian
Ethnicity/National Composition Russians 82.6%, Tatars 3.6%, Ukrainians 2.7%, Chuvash 1.2%, Bashkirs 0.9%, Belarusians 0.7%, Mordvins 0.7%, Chechens 0.6%, others 7 %
Religious affiliation predominantly Orthodox, minorities of Catholics, Protestants, Muslims, Old Believers and Jews
Currency 1 ruble (Rub) = 100 kopecks
gross domestic product (GDP) US$17,518 (2012)
Average life expectancy of the population 67.08 let (2006)
Structure of GDP agriculture, forestry and fishing 15%, mining and industry 36%, construction 6%, services 43%

Russia – neighboring states

State Capital Area Populace
Azerbaijan Baku 86,600 km 9 477 100
Belarus Minsk 207,600 km 9 468 100
China Peking 9,640,820 km 1 363 350 000
Estonia Stable 45 100 km 1 311 870
Finland Helsinki 338 145 km 5 452 821
Georgia Tbilisi 69,700 km 4 483 800
Kazakhstan Astana 2,724,900 km 17 186 000
Lithuania Vilnius 65 300 km 2 941 953
Latvia Riga 64,600 km 2 003 900
Mongolia Ulaanbaatar 1,564,120 km 2 931 300
Norway Oslo 385 155 km 5 109 056
Poland Warsaw 312,685 km2 38 502 396
North Korea Pyongyang 120,538 km 24 895 000
Ukraine Kiev 603 700 km 45 426 200

Country overview

According to Abbreviationfinder, Russia is the largest country in the world, occupying almost 12% of the world’s land area. Most of the territory lies in areas extremely unfavorable for life and is therefore very sparsely populated. Russia borders Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia and Belarus to the west. It has a long border in the south with Ukraine, then with Georgia and Azerbaijan. The longest is with Kazakhstan, Mongolia and China, only a few kilometers with North Korea. It is surrounded in the north by the peripheral seas of the Arctic Ocean – the Barents and Kara Seas, the Laptev Sea and the East Siberian Sea, in the east by the Pacific Ocean with the Okhotsk and Bering Seas, and in the southeast by the Sea of ​​Japan. In shorter stretches, Russia has access to the Baltic Sea (Gulf of Finland) in the west, the Azov and Black Seas in the southwest, and the inland Caspian Sea in the south.

Until the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia was its power base. The disintegration of communist structures left an unfortunate legacy of political instability, fueled by the power, economic, regional and national interests of a rapidly differentiating Russian society.

Country data

Location: North Asia

Time zone: from CET + 2 (in the west) to CET + 12 (in the east)

Total area: 17,098,242 km²

Land area: 16,377,742 km²

Water area: 720,500 km²

Length of the state border: 22,407 km

Bordering countries:
Azerbaijan: 338 km
Belarus / Belarus: 1,312 km
China: 4,179 km
Estonia: 324 km
Finland: 1,309 km
Georgia: 894 km
Kazakhstan: 7,644 km
North Korea: 18 km
Latvia: 332 km
Lithuania: 261 km
Mongolia: 3.452 km
Norway: 191 km
Poland: 209 km
Ukraine: 1,944 km

Coastline: 37,653 km

Capital: Moscow

Republic: 83
Adygeya (Maykop), Altay (Barnaul), Altay (Gorno-Altaysk), Amur (Blagoveshchensk), Arkhangel’sk, Astrakhan, Bashkortostan (Ufa), Belgorod, Bryansk, Buryatiya (Ulan-Ude), Chechnya (Groznyy), Chelyabinsk, Chukotka (Anadyr), Chuvashiya (Cheboksary), Dagestan (Makhachkala), Ingushetiya (Magas), Irkutsk, Ivanovo, Kabardino-Balkariya (Nal’chik), Kaliningrad, Kalmykiya (Elista), Kaluga, Kamchatskiychatka (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy), Karachayevo-Cherkesiya (Cherkessk), Kareliya (Petrozavodsk), Kemerovo, Khabarovsk, Khakasiya (Abakan), Khanty-Mansi (Khanty-Mansiysk), Kirov, Komi (Syktyvkar), Kostroma, Krasnodar, Krasnoyarsk, Kuringrad, Kurs, Magadan, Mariy-El (Yoshkar-Ola), Mordoviya (Saransk), Moscow, Moscow [Moskva], Murmansk, Nenets (Nar’yan-Mar), Nizhniy Novgorod, North Ossetia (Vladikavkaz), Novgorod, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Orel,Orenburg, Penza, Perm, Primorskiy [Maritime] (Vladivostok), Pskov, Rostov, Ryazan, Saint Petersburg [Sankt-Peterburg], Sakha [Yakutiya] (Yakutsk), Sakhalin (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk), Samara, Saratov, Smolensk, Stavropol, Sverdlovsk (Yekaterinburg), Tambov, Tatarstan (Kazan), Tomsk, Tula, Tver, Tyumen, Tyva (Kyzyl), Udmurtiya (Izhevsk), Ul’yanovsk, Vladimir, Volgograd, Vologda, Voronezh, Yamalo-Nenets (Salekhard), Yaroslavl, Yevrey, Zabaykal’sk (Chita)Yamalo-Nenets (Salekhard), Yaroslavl, Yevrey, Zabaykal’sk (Chita)Yamalo-Nenets (Salekhard), Yaroslavl, Yevrey, Zabaykal’sk (Chita)

Electric current: 220 V / 50 Hz

Telephone code: 00 7 (Source: Allcitycodes)

Highest point: Gora Elbrus 5,633 m


Population: approx. 142 million residents (Countryaah, 2021)

Population growth: 0% per year

Population density (residents per km²): 8

Life expectancy: 64 (male), 76 (female)

Official language: Russian


  • 15-20% Russian Orthodox
  • 10-15% Muslim

approx. 70% other



Eastern part of the country:

  • Summer is similar to that in Central Europe
  • dry and cold winter months
  • Winter frost down to -25 ° C

Southern part of the country:

  • Summer months with around 20 ° C
  • cool winter months, but mostly above 0 ° C

Western part of the country:

    • Summer temperatures down to 0 ° C
    • Very long winters (up to 7 months)
    • Winter temperatures from -10 to -50 ° C

Currency / finance

Currency unit: Russian ruble (RUB)

Classification: 1 ruble = 100 kopecks

ATMs: They are available, but should not be used as they are very often manipulated for credit card fraud.

International credit cards: These are accepted in larger hotels and shops.

Regulations: The local currency may be imported and exported up to an equivalent value of approx. 3,000 US dollars. In addition, only with a corresponding declaration.

There is no limit to the amount of foreign currencies that can be imported. The export is permitted in the amount of the declared import. There is an obligation to declare.

The exchange of money should only be done at approved banks and exchange offices and must be entered in the declaration form.

Customs regulations

The following may be carried duty-free:

  • 200 cigarettes or 50 cigars or 250 g of tobacco
  • 1.5 liters of alcoholic beverages

(Information applies to people aged 18 and over)

Tourists and people in transit can bring items of personal use with them duty-free.

The customs form received upon entry must be kept until departure. In this all things carried are listed.

Travel advice

Traveling to the following areas is not advisable due to the risk situation there:

  • Dagestan
  • Ingushetia
  • Kabardino-Balkaria
  • Chechnya

Since there have been repeated terrorist attacks, you should avoid staying in large crowds.

Behavioral advice

Photographing military objects and people is prohibited and should also be avoided.


After the transition to a market economy, industry is only slowly gaining momentum. Exports in particular are stagnating in many sectors.

The Russian Federation has a lot of natural resources and other resources.

Due to the sanctions of western countries, economic development is stagnating.

Due to the drop in the price of oil and the resulting reduced foreign exchange income, the state had to cut its expenditure massively and release part of its financial reserves.

Industries: building materials, mining, chemistry, electronics, power generation, mechanical engineering, vehicle manufacturing, aircraft manufacturing, food manufacturing, textiles, transportation, tourism

Natural resources: There are many different natural resources in large quantities.

Land use:

  • Usable land: 8%
  • Grain cultivation: 0%
  • Pasture area: 4%
  • Forests: 46%
  • other: 42%


In the ice deserts of the north there are only a few green areas overgrown with moss and simple grasses.

The largest forest area still in existence on earth stretches from the center of the country to the south. There are mainly spruce, pine and fir trees.

In the south of the country there are huge steppe landscapes that are used for agriculture, because the soil is very fertile.


From the animal species that exist in Europe to the polar bears, seals and walruses living in Siberia, almost all areas of fauna are represented.

In the south of the country there are fewer animals than in the north, as the population is being decimated here by agricultural use and hunting.

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