Politics and Education of Paraguay
State structure and political system of Paraguay
Paraguay is a free and independent republic, a social and legal state, unified, indivisible and decentralized. The Constitution of 1992
is in force. Paraguay is divided into 18 departments: Alto Paraguay, Alto Parana, Amambay, Boqueron, Guaira, Itapua, Caaguazu, Caasapa, Canindeyu, Concepción, Cordillera, Misiones, Nyeembuku, Paraguari, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro, Central, Metropolitan district (Asuncion).
The most important cities are: Asuncion, Concepción, Pedro Juan Caballero, San Lorenzo, Ciudad del Este, Encarnacion, Mariscal Estigarribia, Villarrica, Villa Hayes.
According to the Constitution, the only source of power is the people. All adult citizens enjoy the right to vote.
Representative, pluralistic, participatory democracy protects human dignity. The principle of separation of powers is proclaimed. Elections of all authorities are held once every 5 years. The election of the President, Vice President and the Legislative Assembly are combined in terms of terms.
The highest legislative body is the bicameral National Congress (the chamber of the Senate and the chamber of deputies).
The Congress approves the budget, ratifies international treaties, declares amnesty and performs control functions.
The right of legislative initiative is enjoyed not only by members of Congress, the President and the Supreme Court, but also by the citizens of the country.
According to the Constitution of Paraguay, the president is the head of state and government.
The President represents the state, has the right to veto laws, issue decrees, appoint and remove ministers, carry out international relations, and is the supreme commander of the Armed Forces. For improper performance of their powers, the President and other senior officials may be brought to political court. Re-election of the President for a second term is prohibited.
The judiciary is independent of other branches. The Supreme Court (9 members) is elected by Congress. The Supreme Court appoints judges of all other levels, supervises all other courts, and regulates their activities.
The Constitutional Chamber, which determines the constitutionality of adopted laws and court verdicts, is formed from among its members within the Supreme Court. The Congress elects the Supreme Electoral Court (3 members), which controls the course of the election campaign, the election process and their legality.
Local elections are separate from presidential and parliamentary ones. Municipal councils and mayors of municipalities are elected by the population for a term of 5 years.
The party system of Paraguay formally took shape in con. 1880s In practice, behind the façade of the party system is a clan struggle masquerading as a struggle between various factions of the Republican and Liberal parties.
The National Republican Association Party of Colorado was founded in 1887. Its party apparatus at the center and in the localities is tightly controlled by various groups of the military, representatives of transnational corporations, and large landowners.
The original Liberal Radical Party was founded in 1977 following a split in the Liberal Radical Party.
Over the past 20 years, the size of the Armed Forces of Paraguay has been halved, brought to 20 thousand people, mainly due to the ground army (15 thousand). 3,500 people serve in the navy, 1,500 in aviation. Paraguay’s military spending is $107 million. Compulsory military service has been abolished.
Paraguay has diplomatic and trade relations with the Russian Federation, established in May 1992.
Science and culture of Paraguay
According to searchforpublicschools, the system of science, education and culture developed in Paraguay later than in most Latin American countries. Primary education lasts 5 years (from 7 to 12 years of age) and covers 835 thousand students, secondary – 5 years (from 13 to 18 years of age) and covers 241 thousand students. 43 thousand students study at universities.
In 1921 scientists organized themselves and founded the Scientific Society of Paraguay. In 1928 the Institute of Hygiene was established. After the Chaco War, interest in the humanities grew. The Paraguayan Institute of Historical Research appeared in 1937.
In 1942, the Guarani Language and Culture Academy was founded. In 1943, the Institute of Numismatics and Antiquities of Paraguay appeared, and in 1950, the Center for Anthropological Research. In 1968, the Council for Scientific and Technological Research was established at the National University, designed to coordinate activities throughout the country. There are currently 8 universities in Paraguay.
In con. 19 – beg. 20th century national literature was formed mainly in Spanish, from the beginning. 20th century bilingualism is approved (Spanish and Guarani). The poet M. Ortiz Guerrero (1897-1933) wrote poetry in Guarani. The founder of the Guarani theater, the popular actor J. Correa (1908–54), along with poetic works, composed and staged folk dramas in Guarani. Social themes are most clearly expressed in the poetry of E. Campos Cervera, in the plays of R. Centurion Miranda and J. Pla, the stories of A. Valdovinos, J. Villarejo, and the poems of E. Romero. The beginning of “magic realism” was laid by the outstanding writer, historian and ethnographer A. Roa Bastos.
In the 19th century in the architecture of Paraguay, classicism and traditions of the colonial period reigned supreme. In the 1st floor. 20th century they are complemented by neoclassicism. After the 2nd World War, the influence of the avant-garde trend, especially Brazilian architects, began to be felt in urban development.
Paraguayan painting appeared in the middle. 19th century (artists A. Garcia, S. Rios and others, who left many portraits of public and state figures). In the 20th century the artists P. Alborno, J. de la Herreria, and the sculptor V. Pegliarolo worked in a realistic manner. In the work of the artist K. Colombino, the sculptor B. Kujari, the non-objective principle prevailed.
The musical life of Paraguay has been developing intensively since ser. 19th century Among the composers of the 20th century. stand out H.K. Moreno Gonzalez, J.M. Betner, R. Jimenez, J.A. Flores, C. Lara Bavreiro, E. Jimenez.