Poland Guide

Poland Guide

Poland – information about the country

Country name Poland
Official name Polish Republic
Capital Warsaw
Continent Europe
Area 312,685 km2
Population 38,502,396 (2013)
Foundation of a state 11/11/1918
The highest mountains Features 2,499 m
Longest rivers Wisla 1086 km
State system a pluralist republic with a bicameral parliament
The biggest cities Warsaw (capital) 1,675,000, Łódź 855,000, Kraków 760,000
Official language Polish
Ethnicity/National Composition Poles 98.7%, Ukrainians 0.6%, others 0.7%
Religious affiliation Roman Catholic 95.0%, other 5.0%
Currency 1 zloty (Zl) = 100 groszy
gross domestic product (GDP) US$20,562 (2012)
Average life expectancy of the population 74.97 years (2006)
Structure of GDP agriculture and fishing 6.5%, mining and industry 40%, construction 6%, services 47.5%

Poland – neighboring states

State Capital Area Population
Belarus Minsk 207,600 km2 9,468,100
Czechia Prague 78,866 km2 10,513,800
Lithuania Vilnius 65,300 km2 2,941,953
Germany Berlin 357,022 km2 80,619,000
Russia Moscow 17,098,200 km2 143,700,000
Slovakia Bratislava 49,033 km2 5,415,949
Ukraine Kyiv 603,700 km2 45,426,200

Country overview

According to Abbreviationfinder, Poland, a country in the eastern part of Central Europe, lies on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea. It borders Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, and Belarus and Ukraine to the east. In the northeast, it borders Lithuania and the Kaliningrad region of the Russian Federation.

Natural conditions

Most of Poland consists of a monotonous landscape of lowlands, hills and plateaus, which is part of the vast Central European Plain modeled by a continental glacier, limited only to the south by a system of isolated mountain ranges and long mountain ranges.


The history of Poland is long and complex. The current republic was established only after World War II. In 1989, Poland was the first European country to break free from communism.


In 1989, Poland began the complex and painful process of transition to a market economy. Previously, private agriculture was followed by the privatization of services and smaller businesses. Prices and wages were liberalized and state subsidies were removed. High inflation necessitated harsh austerity measures that led to high unemployment but also to a resumption of economic growth beginning in 1992.

Country data

Location: Central Europe

Time zone: CET

Total area: 312,685 km²

Land area: 304,255 km²

Water area: 8,430 km²

Length of the state border: 3,071 km

Bordering countries:
Germany: 467 km
Lithuania: 104 km
Russian Federation: 210 km
Slovakia: 541 km
Czech Republic: 796 km
Ukraine: 535 km
Belarus / Belarus: 418 km

Coastline: 440 km

Capital: Warsaw

Provinces: 16
Dolnoslaskie, Kujawsko-Pomorskie, Lodzkie, Lubelskie, Lubuskie, Malopolskie, Mazowieckie, Opolskie, Podkarpackie, Podlaskie, Pomorskie, Slaskie, Swietokrzyskie, Warminsko-Mazurskie, Wielkopolskie

Electric current: 220 V / 50 Hz

Telephone code: 00 48 (Source: Allcitycodes)

Highest point: Rysy 2,499 m


Population: approx. 38.3 million residents (Countryaah, 2021)

Population growth: -0.1% per year

Population density (residents per km²): 122

Life expectancy: 73 (male), 81 (female)

Official language: Polish


  • 87% Roman Catholic
  • 13% other


In the Eastern European climate, the summers are warm and the winters are cold. The summer lasts from mid-June to the end of August, the winter months from November to February (in the mountains from December to March).


Currency / finance

Currency unit: Zloty (PLN)

Division: 1 zloty = 100 groszy

ATMs: These are available in all major cities and tourist areas. The withdrawal is made using an EC card / credit card.

International credit cards: These are accepted by many hotels and shops.

Regulations: National and foreign currencies can be imported in unlimited amounts. A declaration is required from an equivalent value of 10,000 euros.

Customs regulations

The following may be carried duty-free:

  • 200 cigarettes or 50 cigars or 250 g of tobacco
  • 1 liter of alcoholic beverages
  • small amounts of perfume

(Information applies to people aged 18 and over)

Tourists and people in transit can bring items of personal use with them duty-free.

If fur goods and objects made of gold are carried, these must be cleared when crossing the border.

Antiques and works of art of any kind may not be exported.

Travel advice

There is currently no country-specific safety notice for Poland.


Many of the products manufactured in Poland are exported to western countries for foreign exchange.

Industries: chemistry, iron and steel processing, coal mining, food production, mechanical engineering, shipbuilding, textiles

Natural resources: lead, natural gas, coal, copper, farmland, salt, silver

Land use:

  • Land: 47%
  • Grain cultivation: 1%
  • Pasture area: 13%
  • Forests: 29%
  • other: 10%


With over 1,000 nature reserves and over 20 national parks, a lot is done in Poland to preserve nature.

In order to stimulate tourism for those interested in nature, care is taken to preserve the existing ecological areas in their natural way.


Eagles, beavers, brown bears, moose, otters, lynxes, storks, wild cats and wolves can still be found in the wild in Poland’s diverse fauna.

Farm animals mainly include ducks, chickens, cows, horses and pigs.

There are also a large number of smaller animal species that have found their home here quite undisturbed by Central European standards.

The established national parks are particularly interesting for animal lovers.

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