Netherlands Guide

Netherlands Guide

Netherlands – country information

Country name The Netherlands
Official name Kingdom of the Netherlands
Capital Amsterdam
continent Europe
Area 41,528 km
Population 16 842 200 (2014)
Foundation of a state 23. 1. 1579
The highest mountains Vaalsberg 321 m
Longest rivers Rhine 1326 km (inland 150 km), Maas/Meuse 930 km (inland 300 km)
State system a constitutional monarchy with a unicameral parliament
The biggest cities Rotterdam 1 060 000, Amsterdam (hl. město) 1 055 000, The Hague (The Hague) 705 000
Official language Dutch
Ethnicity/National Composition Dutch 95.2%, Turks 1.4%, Moroccans 1.1%, Germans 0.3%, others 2.0%
Religious affiliation Roman Catholic 34%, Dutch Reformed Church 17%, Calvinist 8%, Muslim 3.2%, other 0.8%, no religion 37%
Currency 1 euro = 100 cents
gross domestic product (GDP) US$41,527 (2012)
Average life expectancy of the population 78.96 let (2006)
Structure of GDP agriculture, forestry and fishing 4.2%, mining 3.7%, industry 22.5%, construction 5.9%, services 63.7%

The Netherlands – Neighboring States

State Capital Area Populace
Belgium Brussels 32,545 km 11 132 269
Germany berlin 357,022 km 80 619 000

Country overview

Small in size, but very densely populated, the Netherlands is remarkable not only for its mostly flat landscape, but above all for the extent of the territory that was obtained by drying at the expense of the sea. Almost half of the country lies below sea level. The Netherlands borders Germany to the east and Belgium to the south. It controls access to the North Sea at the mouths of three important European rivers – the Scheldt (n. Schelde, fr. Escaut), the Maas (Maas in the Netherlands, Meuse in Belgium) and the Rhine (n. Rijn), Europe’s most important waterways – which contributes to the extraordinary the position of the Netherlands as the most important communication area in Europe.


The history of the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg are closely linked. In history, many attempts have been made to make them a single entity. In Anglo-Saxon literature, the whole area is called the Netherlands.


According to Abbreviationfinder, the Netherlands is the most densely populated country in Europe (450 inhabitants per km 2), 90% of its inhabitants live in cities. About 6 million of them live in a belt of cities called the Randstad, which stretches from Dordrecht in the south through Rotterdam, The Hague, Leiden, Haarlem, Amsterdam, Hilversum to Utrecht. In addition to Dutch, Frisian is still used in the northern province of Friesland. More than half the population is Christian; Roman Catholics are concentrated in the south, Protestants of various affiliations in the northern half of the country. The Netherlands is also home to many immigrant communities, including residents of former Dutch colonies and their descendants, as well as a growing Turkish and Moroccan minority (more than 3% of the faithful are already Muslim). As one of the few developed Western European countries, the Netherlands maintains a more favorable population development and population growth.

The Netherlands is developing its rich cultural heritage, especially music and visual arts. The creative contribution is characterized by literature and drama, most of whose works have not yet been translated into foreign languages. Culture is subsidized by the state.

Country data

Location: Europe

Time zone: CET

Total area: 41,543 km²

Land area: 33,893 km²

Water area: 7,650 km²

Length of the state border: 1,027 km

Bordering countries:
Belgium: 450 km
Germany: 577 km

Coastline: 451 km

Capital: Amsterdam

Provinces: 12
Drenthe, Flevoland, Friesland, Gelderland, Groningen, Limburg, Noord-Brabant, Noord-Holland, Overijssel, Utrecht, Zeeland, Zuid-Holland

Electric current: 220 V / 50 Hz

Telephone code: 00 31 (Source: Allcitycodes)

Highest point: Vaalserberg 322 m


Population: approx. 16.9 million residents (Countryaah, 2021)

Population growth: 0.4% per year

Population density (residents per km²): 407

Life expectancy: 79 (male), 83 (female)

Official language: Dutch, German, English, French


  • 28% Roman Catholic
  • 19% Protestants
  • 53% other


In the mild maritime climate, the weather is very changeable. Little rain falls in the summer period. The pleasant temperatures (around 20 ° C) are weakened again by the prevailing winds.


The winter months are cold and humid, with an average temperature between -5 ° C and 10 ° C. It often rains and occasionally snow.

Currency / finance

Currency unit: € / Euro (EUR)

Division: 1 € = 100 cents

ATMs: Available in many cities.

International credit cards: Accepted in many hotels and shops.

Regulations: Foreign and national currencies can be imported and exported in unlimited amounts.

Customs regulations

The following may be carried duty-free:

  • 200 cigarettes or 50 cigars or 250 g of tobacco
  • 1 liter of alcoholic beverages

(Information applies to people aged 18 and over)

Tourists and people in transit can bring items of personal use with them duty-free.

Travel advice

Increased security checks are in place on the access routes to and from Amsterdam Airport Schiphol. You should plan appropriate delays in your trip.


Fishing and finance are the main industries in the Netherlands.

Most of the gross domestic product is generated by the services offered there.

Industries: building materials, chemistry, finance, fishing and processing, mechanical engineering, microelectronics, tourism

Natural resources: natural gas, oil, farmland

Land use:

  • Usable land: 25%
  • Grain cultivation: 3%
  • Pasture area: 25%
  • Forests: 8%
  • other: 39%


The original flora of the Netherlands hardly exists in the original.

Almost all existing plants and tree species were planted through state afforestation programs.


Various species of birds and fish still exist in the Netherlands.

The habitat of animals on land was almost completely wiped out by industrial development.

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