Italy Artists from Middle Ages to the 19th Century Part 2

Italy Artists from Middle Ages to the 19th Century Part 2

In France as early as 1461 F. Laurana and Pietro da Milano were working for Renato d’Angiò; Charles VIII brought back from Italy a group of artists and artisans – even a gardener – including Guido Mazzoni who made the mausoleum in Saint-Denis, then destroyed, between Giocondo who built the bridge of Notre-Dame in Paris, Domenico from Cortona who continued to work in France until the middle of the century. XVI, drawing among other things the municipal building of Paris, destroyed in 1871; and there was no lack of painters, such as Benedetto Ghirlandaio. Throughout the century XVI the artistic primacy was held by Italians: the Florentines Antonio and Giovanni Giusti, working in Tours, sculpted the tomb of Louis XII and Anna of Brittany in Saint-Denis; Antonio della Porta sent sculptures from Genoa; in all the arts the work or influence of the Italian masters triumphed. Francesco I had gathered around him Leonardo da Vinci, Andrea del Sarto, Rosso Fiorentino, Francesco Primaticcio, Nicola dell’Abate, Sebastiano Serlio, Girolamo della Robbia, Benvenuto Cellini and others. The castle of Fontainebleau, all decorated with their frescoes and sculptures and partly built according to their design, was the center of the Italians and the Italians of the so-called “school of Fontainebleau” from which French art was taught, even in the following centuries. even in certain derivations into Napoleonic neoclassicism. In the seventeenth century Italian art still operated in France, and when Louis XIV wanted to build his palace he called Gian Lorenzo Bernini from Italy. Due to the classicist tendency, contrary to the Berninian spirit, of the French artists, Bernini’s project was not carried out: but from it many elements were drawn by the builders of the Louvre. If the immigration of Italian artists to France, already so favored by Mazarin, then decreased, there was compensation in the continuous influence of our art that the French came to study in Italy. However, we remember for this period the mosaicist of the Louvre F. Belloni. For the sec. XIX it can be remembered that Antonio Canova called to Paris by Napoleon, he executed the statues of him and that of the empress Maria Luisa; later LTG Visconti, a Roman architect, designed the sepulchral chapel in which the bones of the emperor and the new Louvre rest and the Piedmontese sculptor Carlo Marochetti, then very industrious in England, executed numerous public monuments in Paris and other cities in France.

In England, at the time of Henry VIII, Pietro Torrigiani sculpted the tombs of King Henry VIII and his mother in Westminster Abbey; Benedetto and Giovanni da Rovezzano worked for Cardinal Wolsey and for the king, other Italians built castles and stately homes, which were then destroyed. Later F. Zuccari worked for a long time as a portraitist; in the sec. XVIII worked in London among others, Antonio and Bernardo Canal, F. Bartolozzi, who had a profound influence on English engravers.

In the various Germanic or Germanic countries, the Italian artistic activity also began in the 16th century to reach its maximum intensity in the 17th and 18th centuries. At the court of the emperor Maximilian were, with other Italians, fra Giocondo, Ambrogio de Predis, Iacopo de Barbari, who worked extensively in many places in Germany before moving to the Netherlands; later the Habsburgs and the other princes continually made use of Italian artists. There are countless royal palaces, public and private palaces, churches and convents elevated and decorated by the Italians in Germany, Bohemia, German-speaking Switzerland and above all in Austria. We mention only the most important works. In the century XVI: in Prague the work of Paolo della Stella in the “Belvedere”; the Residence in Landshut. To a Lugano citizen, Giovanni Maria Nosseni, a pupil of Sansovino, the merit of having introduced the art of the Renaissance in Saxony, and a little everywhere in the rest of Germany: his most important work is the chapel of the Saxon princes, in the Freiberg cathedral, containing the tombs of the electors of Saxony and their wives, with the bronze statues of the Florentine Carlo de Cesare. From the following century are the cathedral of Salzburg, built by Santino Solari, the church of the Theatines in Munich, of A. Barelli and E. Zuccalli, the church of Klosterneuburg, and those of S. Floriano, of Kremsmünster, of Schlierbach in Austria. , the latter works by the Lombard architect Carlo Antonio Carloni, decorated by his brothers and sons; in Vienna the Archbishop’s Palace by G. Coccapani, a wing and the entrance to the royal palace, the Dominican church by C. Tencalla; in Bavaria, the great royal palace of Nymphenburg by Agostino Barelli from Bologna; in Prague the Clementinum, and the Czernin and Waldstein palaces. In Vienna we remember the palace of the Liechtenstein princes, by D. Martinelli, with frescoes by Andrea Pozzi; the paintings by G. Guglielmi in the Schönbrunn castle, by A. Beduzzi in the provincial palace, by F. Solimena in the Belvedere; and in Germany the grandiose royal palace of Schleissheim, the work of E. Zuccalli from Graubünden; Wilhelmshöhe Castle near Kassel, with the Pyramid and the Hercules Waterfall, by the Roman F. Guarnieri; in Mannheim the Palazzo della Mercanzia, by Alessandro Galli Bibiena; in Würzburg the frescoes by GB Tiepolo in the palace of the prince-bishop. Of the sacred buildings in Munich the church of San Gaetano del Barelli, that of the SS. Trinity by GA Viscardi, also author of the court church of Fürstenfeld; in Mannheim the Jesuit church of Alessandro Bibiena, and the church of the New Monastery in Wiirzburg, by Valentino Pezzani. In German-speaking Switzerland, the cathedral of San Gallo, by G. Gaspare Bagnato, the church of Sant’Orso in Solothurn, by Matteo and Antonio Pisoni (also authors of the cathedrals of Liège and Namur), and the sanctuary of Einsiedeln, full of works of Italians, and in particular of the Carloni family (v.).

According to microedu, a masterpiece of Italian architecture in Germanic countries is the court church in Dresden, built between 1739 and 1756 on a design by the Roman Gaetano Chiaveri. The bronze statues on the outside by L. Mattielli: the frescoes and paintings on the inside of S. Torelli and P. Rotari show the competition of all the Italian arts. Not only the architects, but the Italian painters and sculptors, even the stucco decorators; in the sec. XIII and XVIII were very numerous in Germany and Austria and spread the Baroque forms there. We remember among the many Martino Altomonte, the Trentino GB Lampi, Bernardo Bellotto, GA Pellegrini, painters; FA Bustelli from Ticino, modeler of exquisite figurines for porcelain factories. Even in the nineteenth century there is no lack of Italian works of art in German countries: Antonio Canova sculpted the sepulcher of Maria Cristina, in the church of the Augustinians in Vienna, and in the same city, the Ticino architect Pietro de Nobile introduced the neoclassical style, with the temple of Theseus and other buildings of Greek inspiration that gave rise to an entire architectural renewal in the Austrian capital; the Lombard sculptor Pompeo Marchesi painted the monument to Goethe in Frankfurt, the monument to Francis I in Graz and the monument to Francis II in Vienna.

Italy Artists from Middle Ages to the 19th Century 2

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