India Guide

India Guide

India – Country Information

Country name India
Official name Republic of India
Capital Delhi
Continent Asia
Area 3,287,260 km2
Population 1,241,610,000 (2014)
Foundation of a state 8/15/1947
The highest mountains Kangchendzönga 8598 m, Nandá Déví 7816 m
Longest rivers Ganga 2510 km, Brahmaputra 2900 km (inland 900 km)
State system a pluralistic federal republic with a bicameral parliament
The biggest cities Mumbai 13,500,000, Calcutta 11,800,000, Delhi (Capital) 9,100,000
Official language Hindi, English
Ethnicity/National Composition Hindi-speaking Hindustani 39%, Telugu 8%, Bengali 7.6%, Marathi 7.3%, Tamil 6.6%, Urdu-speaking Hindustani 5.2%, Gujarati 4.9%, Kannada 3.9%, Malayalam 3.8%, Urians 3.4%, Punjabis 2.7%, Assamese 1.6%, others 6.2%
Religious affiliation Hindu 83.5%, Muslim 11%, Christian 2%, Sikh 2%, Buddhist 0.7%, Jain 0.5%, other 0.3%
Currency 1 Indian rupee (Re, pl. Rs) = 100 paise
gross domestic product (GDP) US$3,843 (2012)
Average life expectancy of the population 64.71 years (2006)
Structure of GDP agriculture and fishing 31%, mining 2.3%, industry 21%, construction 5.7%, services 40%

India – Neighboring States

State Capital Area Population
Bangladesh Dhaka 143,998 km2 152,518,015
Burma (Myanmar) Naypyidaw 676,578 km2 53,259,000
Bhutan Thimphu 47,000 km2 745,200
China Peking 9,640,820 km2 1,363,350,000
Nepal Kathmandu 147,181 km2 26,494,504
Pakistan Islamabad 796,095 km2 185,914,000

Country overview

According to Abbreviationfinder, Republic of India occupies the largest part of the Indian subcontinent and covers an area as large as a third of Europe. The mighty mountain ranges of the Himalayas in the north separate it like a wall from the rest of Asia. The Indian peninsula is washed by the Arabian Sea to the west, the Indian Ocean to the south and the Bay of Bengal to the east.

Country data

Location: South Asia

Time zone: CET + 4.5 (during summer time: CET + 3.5)

Total area: 3,287,263 km²

Land area: 2,973,193 km²

Water area: 314,070 km²

Length of the state border: 13,888 km

Bordering countries:
Bangladesh: 4,142 km
Bhutan: 659 km
China: 2,659 km
Myanmar: 1,468 km
Nepal: 1,770 km
Pakistan: 3,190 km

Coastline: 7,000 km

Capital: New Delhi

States: 36
Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh, Chhattisgarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha, Puducherry, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal

Electric current: 220 V / 50 Hz

Telephone code: 00 91 (Source: Allcitycodes)

Highest point: Kanchenjunga 8,598 m


Population: approx. 1.236 billion residents (Countryaah, 2021)

Population growth: 1.2% per year

Population density (residents per km²): 376

Life expectancy: 67 (male), 69 (female)

Official language: Hindi, English


  • 80% Hindu
  • 13% Muslim
  • 2% Christians
  • 5% other


The climate varies a lot, depending on the region. In the north there are moderate climates to tropical areas in the south.

It’s hottest in the second quarter of the year. This is followed by the rainy season from July to September. This often leads to flooding, especially in coastal areas.


Currency / finance

Currency unit: rupee (INR)

Classification: 1 rupee = 100 paises <

ATMs: Can be used with credit cards in many large cities.

International credit cards: These are accepted by many larger hotels and shops.

Regulations: Foreign currencies can be imported and exported in unlimited amounts. A declaration is required from an amount of around 5,000 US dollars.

You should keep all exchange receipts until you leave the country. The import and export of the local currency is prohibited.

The import of gold coins and bars is prohibited!

Violations of financial or customs regulations lead to arrest on departure!

Customs regulations

The following may be carried duty-free:

  • 200 cigarettes or 50 cigars or 250 g of tobacco
  • 0.9 liters of alcoholic beverages
  • small amounts of perfume

(Information applies to people aged 18 and over)

Tourists and people in transit can bring items of personal use with them duty-free.

All items that have a high value must be declared on entry in a corresponding form. This form must be kept until departure.

Protected animals and plants, as well as pornographic material of all kinds, may not be imported into India.

Travel advice

In November 2016, the previous 500 and 1000 rupee banknotes were taken out of circulation. New bills will continue to be issued. In rural regions in particular, there are still isolated bottlenecks in the supply of cash.

The border region to Pakistan and rural areas of the Kashmir region should be avoided when traveling.

Serious terrorist attacks have recently occurred in various parts of the country. You should be very alert, especially when there are large gatherings of people.

Behavioral advice

Possession and trafficking in all kinds of drugs are severely punished. Life imprisonment is common even for the smallest amounts.


The extremely rapid population growth is the country’s main problem, which makes the severe poverty and poor agriculture worse.

Over two thirds of the population are employed in agriculture, in small businesses. The food grown is mostly used for self-sufficiency.

In the last few years, the technology and computer industries in particular have developed further in large cities.

Industries: mining, chemistry, food production, mechanical engineering, textiles

Natural resources: diamonds, natural gas, iron ores, coal, farmland

Land use:

  • Land: 56%
  • Grain cultivation: 1%
  • Pasture area: 4%
  • Forests: 23%
  • other: 16%


In the north of the country the Himalayan mountains dominate. In the west there are deserts and in the south a highland that flattens out towards the Ganges.

Almost nothing is left of the natural flora. Most of the land has been converted for agricultural use.


There are many monkeys, elephants, cows (which are sacred) and peacocks in India. The protection of animals is already anchored in the widespread Buddhist belief.

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