Climate. – Given its position in a large plain surrounded by mountain ranges and far from the sea, on the border between Central and Eastern Europe, where the struggles between oceanic (Atlantic) and continental influences are still felt, albeit attenuated, a climate characterized by considerable differences in temperature between summer and winter, low rainfall, alternating contrast of the E. and W. winds that regulate the alternation of high and low pressures, but above all a great variability, which decreases by much the value of the averages.
According to searchforpublicschools, as for temperatures, it is between the annual isotherms of 9 ° and 11 °. In January, temperatures drop very low and Budapest with −2 °, 3 has a colder temperature than Gdansk, 7 ° more to the north, while Trieste has an average of 6 ° in the same month. On the other hand, in the summer Hungary is between the isotherms of 20 ° -23 °; compared with those of the Mediterranean regions these temperatures are not very high, but instead, if compared with the temperatures of January, they give a fairly sensitive annual excursion.
But the character of greater continentality comes to the climate of the Pannonian Lowland above all from rainfall, which is around 550-700 mm., With higher values for the peripheral hilly areas, especially those of SW., And minimal instead around the middle Tisza. The maximum rainfall occurs at the beginning of summer (May and June) when the temperature also increases, while in August the rainfall decreases; a secondary maximum occurs in October and November, especially pronounced in the platform between the Danube and the Drava, which is more strongly influenced by the Mediterranean. 12 to 14% of precipitation falls in the form of snow. Thunderstorms are very frequent.
Continental waters. – While in the pre-war period Hungary was a homogeneous hydrographic unit, within today’s limits it has only river trunks, now cut by the border at the confluence areas (Danube-Drava), now in the lower and mountainous course (Tisza), now forming the border line. The rivers currently in Hungarian territory have the following lengths: Danube, 428 km. (from Oroszvár to the border; for 275 km. Hungary is in possession of both banks, for 253 of only one); Tisza, 597 km. (of which 50 are borderline); Drava, 157 km. (for one shore only); Maros, 48 km.; Szamos, 49; Bodrog, 57; Körös, 115; Yes, 110.
The Danube (Hungarian Dune), having opened its way through the Hungarian Gate (between the Little Carpazî and the Leita Mountains) first flows into the Little Alföld, where it deposits a lot of material and branches out into different branches; of the two islands formed by it, the Little Schütt (Szigetköz) is Hungarian, the Greater Schütt (slov. Velk ý Ostrov Ž itn ý) Czechoslovakian. He walked lazily through these first plains, his pass is still blocked by other hills and he has to make his way into a gorge, biting the hills of Pilis and Börzsöny with its rapids, to finally reach the Pannonian Lowlands, which he crosses by leaning on a fracture located at the eastern edge of Pannonia with a north-south direction. Its slope is weak and not being able to deepen its bed, it wanders slowly and is often divided with lateral arms, which enclose islands sometimes 30-40 km long. (S. Andrea [Szent Endre], Csepel), often lapped by a curtain of vegetables (willows, reeds). As for the regime, since entering the plain it still has the characteristics of an alpine river, the maximum flow rates coincide with the summer months. Alongside the winter minimum, however, there is also a second autumn minimum, which is accentuating towards the valley, while the summer maximum is attenuated. In Budapest the average flow rate is 2080-2370 cubic meters. per second. For the regulation of the river and its canalization (cutting the meanders, closing the lateral branches, building walls) Hungary spent 330 million crowns from 1867 to 1912. Different characteristics has the Tisza (v.).
Today Hungary has the largest lake in Central Europe, the Balaton (see), and also the southern part of Lake Neusiedl, near the NW corner. of the country, between the floods of the Danube and the Rába. Just 1 to 2 m deep, with the mirror at 113 meters above sea level, and an average surface area of 330 sq km, it is subject to considerable changes in level, which are probably related not so much to karst phenomena as to the rainfall in the basin.. Towards the east it communicates with the Hanság region, which has been drained by a canal. Third in size is Lake Velence (25.9 sq km), a maximum depth of 2 m. and for a third covered by reeds, located at the northern limit of the Mezőföld. Numerous steppe lakes, monotonous, shallow, subject to sensitive variations, without emissaries and therefore salty.