Hong Kong, China Overview
According to abbreviationfinder, Hong Kong, special administrative region of China on the south China coast, with 1,104 km 2 and (2018) 7.45 million residents (mainly Chinese).
Until 1997 the executive power was in the hands of the governor appointed by the British crown as representative of the British monarch. He headed the Executive Council (ExCo) with 10 appointed and 3 ex-officio members. The legislative branch – chaired by the governor – was the Legislative Council (LegCo) with 60 members, 20 of whom were directly elected. According to the treaty signed between Great Britain and China on December 19, 1984, Hong Kong was placed under the sovereignty of China on July 1, 1997. According to Article 31 of the Chinese Constitution, Hong Kong, as a special administrative zone, is directly subordinate to the central government in Beijing, but enjoys extensive autonomy and will be the previous, more liberal social, legal, Maintain social and economic system (including own currency and own tax law). Defense and foreign policy are carried out by China. According to the constitution for Hong Kong (“Basic Law”) drawn up by representatives of China and Hong Kong, approved by the Chinese National People’s Congress on April 4, 1990 and entered into force on July 1, 1997, the head of government (Chief Executive) Chief Representative of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. He is indirectly elected (by an electoral body of 1,200 members) for 5 years (one-time re-election possible) and confirmed by the Chinese central government; he is supported by the Executive Council (15 ministers by virtue of office and 14 non-official members appointed by the head of government) with an advisory function. The Legislative Council (parliament with limited powers; legislative term of 4 years) consists of 70 members, 40 of whom are directly elected by the people of Hong Kong. The other MEPs are determined indirectly.
In 1997 the British troops, which had last comprised 10,000 men, were withdrawn and Chinese armed forces (around 7,000 men) were stationed immediately afterwards.
The Supreme Court (Court of Final Appeal) replaced the Privy Council in 1997 as the court of last resort in Hong Kong. Subordinate to it are the High Court, which comprises the Court of Appeal and the Court of First Instance. At the lower level there is a district court and a magistrate court with limited competences. There are also courts and tribunals with certain special responsibilities.
According to the constitutional basis for Hong Kong, the Special Administrative Region can maintain its legal system based on English common law for a further 50 years, insofar as it is not incompatible with the Basic Law. Hong Kong’s own laws are known as “Ordinances”.
School attendance is compulsory between the ages of 6 and 15. Attending state schools has been free of charge (since 1971). The primary level, based on a well-developed elementary level, lasts 6 years, followed by a two-cycle lower secondary level (5 years). The decisive factor for the transition to the two-year upper secondary level (Sixth Form) is the performance of the Hong Kong Certificate of Education Examination. The university entrance requirement is the Hong Kong Advanced Level Examination. In the higher education sector, there are nine universities (Chinese University of Hong Kong, City University of Hong Kong, Lingnan University, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong University of Science & Technology, University of Hong Kong, Open University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Shue Yan University) as well as numerous post-secondary colleges.
Article 27 of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Basic Law grants freedom of speech, press and publication. Limitations exist due to the undisguised influence on critical reports on Chinese politics. Since 2000 there have been increasing reports of the gradual erosion of press freedom and the dismissal of critical journalists. The economic and political dependence on China favors self-censorship in the editorial offices. In 2012, 50 titles were published in Hong Kong, including 24 in Chinese and 13 in English, plus 648 other periodicals. The most important daily newspapers are “South China Morning Post” (founded in 1903; English) and China’s official daily in English, “China Daily” (founded in 1997). The Chinese daily newspapers achieve high circulations, including “Oriental Daily News” (650,000), the Beijing-critical sensational newspaper “Ping Kuo Jih Po” (founded in 1995) or “Sing Pao” (founded in 1939). Important business journals are “Hsin Pao” (“Hong Kong Economic Journal”), “Hong Kong Economics Times” (founded in 1988), “Hong Kong Sheung Po” (“Hong Kong Commercial Daily”, founded in 1952) and the Asian Wall Street Journal «(Founded in 1976; English).
Broadcasting: The broadcasting and television market is regulated and monitored by the Communication Authority, founded in 2012. The state, fee-financed Radio Television Hong Kong (RTHK) broadcasts its programs in English, Chinese and Mandarin on seven channels and broadcasts an educational TV program. The private Hong Kong Commercial Broadcasting Co. Ltd. broadcasts two Chinese and one English radio programs. The private Hong Kong Television Broadcasts Ltd. (TVB, founded in 1967) broadcasts a Chinese (Jade Network) and an English (Pearl Network) television program, the private Asia Television Ltd. one Chinese and one English television program. Satellite Television Asian Region (STAR TV, subsidiary of R. Murdoch controlled Australian-American News Corporation Ltd.) broadcasts its programs via satellite. Since 1993, Hong Kong Cable Television Ltd. watch a pay TV program over cable.