History of Dubai, United Arab Emirates
According to abbreviationfinder, Dubai is part of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) on the Persian Gulf with the Hatta exclave in the Omang Mountains; 3,900 km 2, (2015) 2.45 million residents, more than 98% of them in the capital Dubai. The traditional trade center (pearls, gold, re-exports of consumer goods) at the exit of the Persian Gulf is the most important logistics center in the region. Its economic position improved steadily due to the oil industry (fields Fateh, Raschid and Faleh in the shelf since 1964, reserves 1.9 billion barrels). With its own (Marghan field, reserves: 125 million m 3) and imported natural gas are among others the aluminum smelter DUBAL (since 1980) and petrochemical companies (aromatic hydrocarbons) operated. The deep-sea ports of Port Raschid (since 1972) and Jebel Ali (with free trade and production zones) have largely replaced the ports with traditional dhows (still to Iran, South Asia). The completely liberal economic order (immigration law, freedom of establishment e.g. in Jebel Ali) stimulated the expansion of the consumer goods industry, which is dominated by Indian and international companies and which today is the main pillar of economic development alongside merchanting. There is an increasing diversification of the economy, especially a dynamic development of tourism. For example, two artificial islands, “The Palm Jumeirah” and “The Palm Jebel Ali”, built into the sea in the form of giant palm trees;
History: In the 16./17. In the 19th century, disputed between Persia and Portugal or the Ottoman Empire, Dubai came under British rule in 1902 (protectorate; until 1968). From 1964/65 it lost its role as a trading center to Abu Dhabi; was a founding member of the United Arab Emirates. Sheikh Mohammed Ibn Raschid al-Maktum (* 1949) has been the head of state (also Vice President and Prime Minister of the UAE) since 2006.
Already in Sumerian times (around 3000 BC) there were important trading centers on the coast of the Persian Gulf. The Islamization of the area began during Muhammad’s lifetime, but was only forcibly consolidated by the caliphate after his death (632). Persian influence at times led to a strong turn to Shiism, for example among the Karmatians (10th / 11th century). The Portuguese appeared in the region in the early 16th century. Since 1760 the area was mainly under British influence (East India Company); the piracy of domestic and European pirates was ended in 1820 by a treaty between seven Arab sheikdoms on the south coast of the Persian Gulf (Pirate Coast) and Great Britain. As “pacified Oman” since the “Perpetual Maritime Truce” of 1853 – after which the terms “Contracting States”, “Treaty Roman” and “Treaty Coast” (Trucial Coast) came up – it was under British sovereignty, and in 1892 committed themselves the sheikdoms in the “Exclusive Agreement” to recognize Great Britain as the sole protecting power; In 1902 they became a British protectorate.
In 1940 Sharja was the Allied air base. Since 1952 the rulers of the sheikdoms met regularly for deliberations. At the beginning of the 1960s, oil production and export became the main branch of industry. The use of the income to expand the infrastructure modernized Bedouin life (including urbanization).
After the British government announced in January 1968 the abandonment of the military bases “east of Suez” by the end of 1971, on February 27, 1968 Bahrain , Qatar and the contracting states united to form a “Federation of Arab Gulf Emirates”. Bahrain and Qatar declared themselves independent (August / September 1971). On December 1, 1971, Iran occupied three islands in the Persian Gulf (including Abu Musa). By replacing the protectorate treaty with a friendship treaty, Great Britain released six (of the seven) contracting states into independence as the »United Arab Emirates« (UAE) on December 2, 1971; on February 10, 1972, Ras al-Khaima joined the Federation.
The UAE passed a provisional constitution on December 2, 1971, which declared the city of Abu Dhabi its capital, and elected the Emir of Abu Dhabi, Sheikh Said Ibn Sultan al-Nahajan (* probably 1918, † 2004) , as head of state (Presidents). The creation of a unified postal and telecommunications system and a common currency (1973), the amalgamation of the armed forces and security authorities (1976) and the law on a federal judiciary (1978) served to establish common institutions and organs. Although the integration of the individual emirates did not go smoothly at first (e.g. attempt at a palace revolt in Sharja, 1987), it was possible under Sheikh Said Ibn Sultan al-Nahajanas far as possible domestic political stability can be achieved. The financial resources made available through the oil export were also increasingly used for social and educational policy measures as well as for ecological projects (e.g. greening projects); In 2004 a woman was appointed to a ministerial office for the first time. After the death of Said Ibn Sultan al-Nahajan on November 2, 2004, he was succeeded by his eldest son, Sheikh Khalifa Ibn Said al-Nahajan (* 1949) , as Emir of Abu Dhabi in the office of President. In January 2006, the Emir of Dubai, Sheikh Mohammed Ibn Raschid al-Maktum (* 1949) , succeeded his deceased brother, Sheikh Maktum Ibn Raschid al-Maktum (* 1943, † 2006), Vice President and Prime Minister of the UAE. The elections to the Federal National Assembly held in December 2006 were the result of a cautious reform process; For the first time, 20 members of this body were chosen by voters (including women) who had previously been nominated by the emirs. Due to the collapse of the real estate market in the Emirate of Dubai, the UAE were hit hard by the effects of the global financial crisis in 2008/09. Elections were held again in September 2011 and October 2015. After the 2015 elections, a woman was elected speaker of parliament for the first time.
In terms of foreign policy, the federation (member of the UN and the Arab League) pursued a moderate line in Middle East policy. Under the influence of the fundamentalist Islamic revolution in Iran (1979), the UAE saw their internal and external existence threatened, and in 1981 they were founding members of the Gulf Council and supported Iraq in the 1st Gulf War (1980-88); In 1985 they established diplomatic relations with the USSR. In the run-up to (1990) the 2nd Gulf War, they played a key role in the formation of the anti-Iraqi alliance under the leadership of the USA and provided a contingent of troops during the war (1991). In 1992 the dispute with Iran over the occupied islands flared up again and since 1996 has led to new strains on bilateral relations. In 1994 the UAE signed a defense treaty with the USA, in 1995 with France and in 1996 with Great Britain. During the Iraq war (2003) the UAE remained neutral; They then took part in the reconstruction of the country (including training Iraqi police and security forces). In 2011, the country sent police forces to Bahrain to crack down on the protest movement there. From 2014 / the UAE participated in attacks on positions of the Islamic State in Syria, and from 2015 also in the military alliance against the Houthi rebels in Yemen. The UAE, Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Bahrain broke off diplomatic relations with Qatar on June 5, 2017, accusing them of supporting and promoting terrorism. The traffic and trade relations with Qatar were also discontinued.