Germany Guide

Germany Guide

Germany – country information

Country name Germany
Official name the Federal Republic of Germany
Capital Berlin
Continent Europe
Area 357,022 km2
Population 80,619,000 (2013)
Foundation of a state 18/1/1871
The highest mountains Zugspitze 2963 m
Longest rivers Rhein 1326 km (865 km in Germany), Elbe 1165 km (795 km), Donau 2850 km (647 km)
State system a pluralistic federal republic with a bicameral parliament
The biggest cities Berlin (capital) 3,490,000, Hamburg 1,720,000, Munich 1,255,000
Official language German
Ethnicity/National Composition Germans 91.9%, Turks 2.3%, citizens of the former Yugoslavia 1.2%, Italians 0.7%, Greeks 0.4%
Religious affiliation Protestants (mainly Lutherans) 46.5%, Roman Catholics 36.5%, Muslims 2.2%, other Christians 1.8%, other and no religion 13%
Currency 1 euro = 100 cents
gross domestic product (GDP) US$38,666 (2012)
Average life expectancy of the population 78.80 years (2006)
Structure of GDP agriculture and fishing 1.2%, mining and industry 30.5%, construction 5.8%, services 62.5%

Germany – neighboring countries

State Capital Area Population
Belgium Brussels 32,545 km2 11,132,269
Czechia Prague 78,866 km2 10,513,800
Denmark Copenhagen 43,094 km2 5,627,235
France Paris 551,500 km2 65,844,000
Luxembourg Luxembourg 2,586 km2 537,000
Netherlands Amsterdam 41,528 km2 16,842,200
Poland Warsaw 312,685 km2 38,502,396
Austria Vienna 83,858 km2 8,504,850
Switzerland Bern 41,284 km2 8,112,200

Country overview

According to Abbreviationfinder, Germany is the second largest country in Europe by population after Russia. Economically, however, it is the strongest, and economic and political developments in Germany have a decisive influence on the development and integration of the whole of Europe.


The German nation has a common history spanning many centuries, but it only acquired a common language in the 16th century. Martin Luther’s translation of the Bible in 1522 became the basis of today’s literary German. Nationally, the country is united. Germans form a decisive part of the original population. Small minorities are made up of the Danes in the north, the Flemish near the border with the Netherlands, and the Lusatian Serbs in the southeast. But Germany is the country with the largest number of immigrants in Europe.

Turks, residents of the former Yugoslavia, Italians, and Greeks, who mostly came to the country in the post-war years as salaried workers, have the strongest representation. The western part of Germany has been experiencing a new large wave of immigrants since 1989, when after hundreds of thousands of Germans from the eastern part and other Eastern European countries there was a strong immigration from war-affected Yugoslavia, the Balkans and some developing countries. At the moment, about 6 million foreigners live in Germany, and their growing number provokes violent actions by neo-fascists and resistance, especially among unemployed young people in the eastern federal states. Foreigners also ensure a natural increase in population, as the German population is dying out in the long term. The distribution of believers reflects a historical division dating back to the time of the Reformation. Lutherans dominate in the north and east, Roman Catholics in the south and the Rhineland.

Country data

Location: Central Europe

Time zone: CET

Total area: 357,022 km²

Land area: 348,672 km²

Water area: 8,350 km²

Length of the state border: 3,694 km

Bordering countries:
Belgium: 133 km
Denmark: 140 km
France: 418 km
Luxembourg: 128 km
Netherlands: 575 km
Austria: 801 km
Poland: 447 km
Switzerland: 348 km
Czech Republic: 704 km

Coastline: 2,389 km

Capital: Berlin

Federal states: 16
Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria, Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hesse, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Lower Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia, Rhineland-Palatinate, Saarland, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia

Electric current: 220 V / 50 Hz

Telephone code: 00 49 (Source: Allcitycodes)

Highest point: Zugspitze 2,963 m


Population: approx. 81 million residents (Countryaah, 2021)

Population growth: -0.2% per year

Population density (residents per km²): 227

Life expectancy: 78 (male), 83 (female)

Official language: German


  • 34% Protestants
  • 34% Roman Catholic
  • 4% Muslim
  • 28% other


The summer months (June-August) are mostly warm, with an average temperature of 25-30 ° C.

In winter (November-February) the average temperature is -5 ° C to + 5 ° C. In some cases it can drop to as low as -20 ° C.

Snowfalls are more frequent in the coastal areas and in the southern regions.

You have to expect rain all year round.


Currency / finance

Currency unit: € / Euro (EUR)

Division: 1 € = 100 cents

ATMs: Available in many cities.

International credit cards: These are accepted by many hotels and shops.

Regulations: Foreign and national currencies can be imported and exported in unlimited amounts.

Customs regulations

The following may be carried duty-free:

  • 200 cigarettes or 50 cigars or 250 g of tobacco
  • 1 liter of alcoholic beverages
  • small amounts of perfume

(Information applies to people aged 18 and over)

Tourists and people in transit can bring items of personal use with them duty-free.


Located in the middle of Europe, the Federal Republic of Germany is very important to Europe’s economy.

In an international comparison, Germany is among the top ten largest industrial countries in the world.

Many of the raw materials required have to be imported because the quantities available are too small.

Industries: chemistry, iron and steel industry, electrical engineering, vehicle construction, mechanical engineering, shipbuilding, textiles

Natural resources: iron ore, natural gas, coal, copper, nickel, agricultural land, salt, uranium

Land use:

  • Usable land: 34%
  • Grain cultivation: 29%
  • Pasture area: 29%
  • Forests: 29%
  • other: 37%


Birch, beech, oak, spruce and pine are quite common. There are many forests, some of them small, all over the country.

There are mixed and coniferous forests up to the tree line of around 1,500 meters.

State reforestation programs deal with the rebuilding of the flora that has been destroyed by agricultural use.


Attempts are being made to protect the decimated wildlife through the establishment of nature reserves and protected areas.

Due to the very limited habitat, many animal species have become extinct.

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