Egypt Guide

Egypt Guide

Egypt – country information

Country name Egypt
Official name Arab Republic of Egypt
Capital To Cairo
continent Africa, Asia
Area 980,869 km
Population 86 127 000 (2014)
Foundation of a state 28. 2. 1922
The highest mountains Džebel Katherína 2637 m
Longest rivers Nile 6690 km (about 1600 km in the country)
State system a presidential-type pluralistic republic with a unicameral assembly
The biggest cities Cairo (capital) 7,750,000 (conurbation with Giza 18,000,000), Alexandria/Al-Iskandariyah 3,600,000, Giza/Al-Jizah 2,500,000
Official language Arabic
Ethnicity/National Composition Egyptian Arabs 98.5%, others 1.5%
Religious affiliation Sunni Muslims 94%, Christians 5.9%
Currency 1 Egyptian pound (EGP) = 100 piastres = 1000 millims
gross domestic product (GDP) US$6,474 (2012)
Average life expectancy of the population 71.29 let (2006)
Structure of GDP agriculture and fishing 19.5%, mining 3.2%, industry 19%, construction 6%, services 52.3%

Egypt – neighboring states

State Capital Area Populace
Israel Jerusalem 22,145 km 8 146 300
Libya Tripoli 1,759,540 km 6 202 000
Sudan Khartoum 2,505,810 km 37 964 000

Country overview

According to Abbreviationfinder, Egypt lies between the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea on the border of Africa and Asia. Egypt proper is, it was said, a gift of the Nile. Its fertile alluvium enabled the creation of one of the oldest civilizations in the world and also the largest concentration of inhabitants in the world. The construction of the Suez Canal between 1859 and 1869, connecting the Mediterranean Sea with the Indian Ocean, greatly enhanced Egypt’s strategic position.

Country data

Location: North Africa

Time zone: CET + 1 (during summer time: CET)

Total area: 1,001,450 km²

Land area: 995,450 km²

Water area: 6,000 km²

Length of the state border: 2,612 km

Bordering countries:
Gaza Strip: 13 km
Israel: 208 km
Libya: 1,115 km
Sudan: 1,276 km

Coastline: 2,450 km

Capital: Cairo

Governorates: 27
Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar (Red Sea), Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah (Alexandria), Al Isma’iliyah (Ismailia), Al Jizah (Giza), Al Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah (Cairo), Al Qalyubiyah, Al Uqsur (Luxor), Al Wadi al Jadid (New Valley), As Suways (Suez), Ash Sharqiyah, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa’id (Port Said), Dumyat (Damietta), Janub Sina ‘(South Sinai), Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina’ (North Sinai), Suhaj

Electric current: 220 V / 50 Hz

Telephone code: 00 20 (Source: Allcitycodes)

Highest point: Mount Catherine 2,629 m


Population: approx. 86.9 million residents (99.5% Egyptians, 0.5% other) (Countryaah, 2021)

Population growth: 1.8% per year

Population density (residents per km²): 87

Life expectancy: 71 (male), 76 (female)

Official language: Arabic


  • 90% Muslim
  • 6% other


In the north of the country there is a Mediterranean climate, which becomes subtropical to the south and then turns into a desert climate. As a result, it is hot and dry in Egypt all year round. The temperatures in summer are 40 ° C during the day. During the night, however, it cools down a lot, especially in desert areas. Overall, precipitation is very rare.


Best travel time:

Travel time to travel near the Mediterranean coast is year-round.
When traveling to Cairo it should be noted that the summer months there are very hot and there is high humidity.

It is best to travel to Central Egypt from the end of October to the beginning of April, as these months are not so extremely hot and the humidity is only moderate.

Currency / finance

Currency unit: Egyptian pound (EGP)

Classification: 1 Egyptian pound = 100 piastres (PT)

ATMs: Available in the major cities.

International credit cards: These are accepted in larger hotels and shops.

Regulations: The national currency can be imported and exported up to an amount of 1000 EGP. An unlimited amount of foreign currencies can be imported and exported.

Customs regulations

The following may be carried duty-free:

  • 200 cigarettes or 200 g tobacco
  • 1 liter of alcoholic beverages
  • small amounts of perfume

(Information applies to people aged 18 and over)

Tourists and people in transit can bring items of personal use with them duty-free.

Jewelry and sports equipment must be declared at customs upon entry.

Appropriate authorization from the Ministry of Commerce must be obtained from the dealer for the export of carpets. Without this, export is prohibited.

There is a strict export ban for all antique objects and for plants and animals that are protected by nature and species.

Travel advice

After attacks on several churches, a state-wide state of emergency that has been in effect since April 10, 2017 was imposed. The provisional duration is three months.

Warnings are given against traveling to the north of the Sinai Peninsula, the border area with Israel, the travel destination Taba and remote areas of the Sahara.

The border regions to Libya and Sudan have been declared restricted areas and are not allowed to be entered.

There is an increased risk when traveling to Egypt, as there have been repeated attacks and attacks in the past.

The government is taking all possible measures to protect tourists. However, further acts of violence cannot be ruled out.

Controls and security measures have been strengthened at the airports. This can lead to longer waiting times and delays.

Traveling on the roads along the Nile and through the center of Egypt is not recommended. In order to be able to pass certain regions you need a permit.

Outside the capital Cairo, medical care is below the standard of Western Europe. We therefore strongly recommend taking out travel health insurance abroad. In an emergency, this should also include a medical return flight transport.

Behavioral advice

There have been isolated reports of fraudulent taxi drivers. Before starting your journey, find out about the approximate fare and only use taxis with the taximeter switched on. The fare should be paid through the window after getting off.

Photography of scenic and cultural objects is generally permitted. However, it is forbidden within museums and tombs or very high photo fees are charged.

Military installations, harbors and airfields may not be photographed.


Agriculture mainly produces cotton, with irrigation of the fields causing major problems as the level of the Nile is gradually falling. In addition, as a result of the Aswan Dam, artificial fertilizers must be used in the cultivation of the fields, as the natural Nile mud is retained by the dam.

Under President Mubarak, the planned economy, which had been based on the Soviet model up to that point, was turned into a more western, more open strategy.

The Suez Canal and, above all, tourism are major foreign exchange earners in the country. The attacks by Islamic fundamentalists in the 1990s brought tourism in Egypt a severe slump.

Industries: building materials, chemistry, food production, textiles, tourism

Natural resources: iron ore, natural gas, magnesium, phosphates, talc, zinc

Land use:

  • Usable land: 3%
  • Grain cultivation: 0%
  • Pasture area: 0%
  • Forests: 0%
  • other: 97%


Due to the climate, the areas with vegetation areas are limited to the area around the Nile and isolated oases.

Various thorn bushes, dwarf mimosas and simple grass species can be found on the borders of the desert areas.

Reeds and some tree species (e.g. acacias, mulberry trees) grow along the Nile and in the Nile Delta.

The date palm is the most common. Cotton, rice, sugar cane and various types of grain are grown in the vast plains of the Nile Delta.


In the desert areas there are jackals, hyenas and occasionally also foxes, which are on the hunt for wild rabbits and other small animals.

The airspace is populated by quails, partridges, falcons, eagles and various migratory birds, which stop here especially in spring.

The country is also known for its scorpions and its snake species, some of which are very poisonous, such as the Egyptian cobra and horned viper.

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