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Category: Europe

For the complete list of nations in Europe, please visit ethnicityology.com.

State structure and Political System of Austria

State structure and Political System of Austria

According to topschoolsintheusa, Austria is a democratic republic with a federal state system. The Constitution was adopted by the Constitutional National Assembly on October 1, 1920. It enshrined the fundamental rights and freedoms of citizens, the principles of equality, the rule of law, the separation of powers, and the separation of justice and administration. Administrative division. The federation consists of 9 lands (the capital of the state, Vienna, is equated to the land). The lands are divided into communities in…

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About Belarus

About Belarus

The territory of Belarus was completely inhabited by people as early as 9-6 millennium BC. Over the years of its existence, the territory of the modern state has repeatedly passed into the possession of other countries. However, during all this time it has not lost its originality, and its cultural treasury has managed to replenish with many interesting objects. A special attraction, this area is given by virgin forests, which are home to many wild animals. Geography of Belarus According…

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About France

About France

France can rightly be considered one of the most touristic countries in the world. There are many cultural and historical monuments that have been perfectly preserved to this day. Sometimes entire villages turn out to be real open-air museums. However, France, in addition to having a huge historical wealth on its territory, also has a comfortable nature for vacationers. First-class resorts on the slopes of the Alps attract thousands of tourists every year. On the coast of the Atlantic Ocean…

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About Czech Republic

About Czech Republic

In the Czech Republic, tourism is one of the components of the economy. This country is known all over the world for its historical sights, natural spas, as well as famous cuisine. Today, the Czech Republic is on the list of the ten most visited countries in the world. The local landscape is very diverse and beautiful. Huge valleys, on which the purest rivers and lakes stretch, are replaced by dense forests growing on the hills. At the moment, there…

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About Moldova

About Moldova

The land where wines of all varieties and shades of taste flow like a river, cheerful gypsy tunes are heard here and there, the smell of fresh pastries comes from the kitchens, and mountain medieval monasteries are barely visible on the horizon – this is Moldova. Generous for its rich nature and hospitable people, the country has not yet been appreciated by Russian tourists, but there are all the prerequisites for this. Visa-free Moldova is just a couple of hours…

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Sights of Ukraine

Sights of Ukraine

One of the oldest cities in Ukraine and the most beautiful capital of Eastern Europe is Kyiv. Kyiv was founded in the 5th century and very often it is called “the mother of Russian cities”. According to Indexdotcom, the city has a huge number of architectural and historical attractions. Those who come to Kyiv should definitely visit the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra, which was built in 1051 and is now one of the most important centers of Orthodoxy, the Lavra is included…

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Stockholm, Sweden

Stockholm, Sweden

“Why did I dream about him, confused, discordant, Born from the depths of not our times, That dream about Stockholm…” Nikolay Gumilyov Stockholm at the same time evokes images from the Scandinavian sagas, medieval legends, the brilliant bourgeois era and the life of a modern European metropolis. The Swedish capital delights with its magnificent architecture and wonderful green parks, surrounded by the blue waters of Lake Mälaren and ancient bridges. In Stockholm, there is the world’s first National City Park…

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Visa to Iceland

Visa to Iceland

To visit the Republic of Iceland, citizens of Ukraine who do not have a biometric passport must apply for a visa. According to A2zgov, the Republic of Iceland does not have its own embassy in Ukraine, you can contact the Consulate of Iceland for all questions, but the Embassy of Norway deals with all visa issues. We will quickly and efficiently prepare and advise for personal submission of documents. Visa support to Iceland Terms of registration10-14 days Visa fees31 EUR…

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Russia Painting and Sculpture

Russia Painting and Sculpture

Painting.  The Russian national style in painting has a well-defined form in the century. XV. The “pre-Mongolian period” and the sec. XIV were but periods of preparation and hesitation; on the other hand, the centuries following the 15th already offer the image of a slow evolution towards different forms and also towards the absolute negation of the previous forms. In the Russian style, the Byzantine forms undergo a progressive and radical transformation, under the purely national influence of religious consciousness….

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The Foreign Population in Italy

The Foreign Population in Italy

The foreigners registered in Italy in 1981 were just 211. 000, largely from other western European countries and from North America: at the time it was a phenomenon of very modest numerical impact, largely traditional in an attractive country like Italy and that, moreover, it hardly posed problems of coexistence towards people coming from cultures substantially similar to the Italian one and from generally even more advanced socio-economic situations. Ten years later, while the number of residents from those regions…

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Italy Economic Conditions

Italy Economic Conditions

Development and growth  Despite ancient craft (and also industrial) traditions, the Italy it was a distinctly rural town until the early twentieth century, perhaps more in terms of social and territorial assets than in terms of the productive economy. After the Second World War, industry spread from the Turin-Milan-Genoa ‘triangle’ to other areas of the Center-North, despite specific industrialization policies in the South and the islands. The post-war recovery was based on basic industry and public works, thanks to the…

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The Italy Legislature Following the 1953 Elections Part 4

The Italy Legislature Following the 1953 Elections Part 4

The improvement of international relations – also in relation to the internal crises that emerged in the USSR after Stalin’s death – had beneficial effects on the internal situation of the country. The tripartite coalition, which began not without suspicions and reservations, was strengthened and strengthened on the way to concrete government works. A new liberal split (between 9 and 11 November the left left the PLI, under the banner of the “liberal democratic” party later called “Radical”) had no…

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The Italy Legislature Following the 1953 Elections Part 3

The Italy Legislature Following the 1953 Elections Part 3

In these conditions the sen. Merzagora decided to withdraw his candidacy. The votes of the Christian Democratic parliamentarians then converged on the name of the Hon. Gronchi. An almost plebiscitary vote crowned the fourth ballot on 29 April: 658 votes in Gronchi against 70 in Einaudi and 92 blank ballots. According to top-medical-schools, the advent of Giovanni Gronchi at the Quirinale coincided with an important turning point in national life. The new President of the Republic had never made a…

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The Italy Legislature Following the 1953 Elections Part 2

The Italy Legislature Following the 1953 Elections Part 2

But the Scelba government also passed that difficult test and was comforted in its work by the success of Trieste’s return to Italy. Already on 8 October 1953, at the time of the Pella government, the Allies had decided to transfer the administration of zone A to Italy. But only the Italo-Yugoslav memorandum of understanding of 5 October 1954 – the result of a patient and shrewd diplomatic work – put an end to the military administration in the two…

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The Italy Legislature Following the 1953 Elections Part 1

The Italy Legislature Following the 1953 Elections Part 1

President De Gasperi once again did his utmost to save the possibility of a formula of democratic solidarity, turning to the old allies of the center for a “government of good will”; but he received a firm rejection of the PSDI, the party of the Hon. Saragat who advocated, albeit in an experimental and demonstrative way, a formula of “opening to the left”. With all the possibilities of a coalition vanished, De Gasperi decided to attempt a single-color government: relying…

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Italy under the Spanish Domination Part 3

Italy under the Spanish Domination Part 3

What the pessimists feared and predicted happened. The kingdom of France, which already had its eyes on Monferrato, kept them there more, after the construction of that fortress, as it did on the fortress of Pinerolo: that vestibule, this gateway to the Milanese and to Italy. There was a Gonzaga family in France, descended from a brother of Federico first duke, who had settled there, married there with the heiress of the duchy of Nevers. Now watch over the affairs of France Richelieu. And…

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Italy under the Spanish Domination Part 2

Italy under the Spanish Domination Part 2

But, in the meantime, mediators, negotiations, the conclusion of an agreement in Asti (June 22, 1615) rather advantageous for him, even if concluded with the hope that in Madrid they would not approve it, and then the mediators, including Venice, would have sided with his part. How it really happened. And then the war burned, in 1616, also by the will of the new and combative governor of Milan, Don Pietro di Toledo. But this time, with closer solidarity between Piedmont and Venice. The…

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Italy under the Spanish Domination Part 1

Italy under the Spanish Domination Part 1

According to searchforpublicschools, this situation of Spain in Italy at the beginning of the 17th century and this attitude of opinion give light to the daring policy of initiatives of Duke Carlo Emanuele. The death of Henry IV at first opposed the Duke’s plans. He saw himself in great danger. He had alienated Spain, and he could no longer count on France. Here, Maria de ‘Medici, more disposed towards Spain than towards the duke. Devoid of any point of support, she thought of England, a…

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Italy Artists from Middle Ages to the 19th Century Part 3

Italy Artists from Middle Ages to the 19th Century Part 3

According to microedu, entire generations of Italian artists hosted Poland and Russia. Lombard architects of the Solari family in the second half of the 15th century built the fortifications of the Kremlin and the palaces of the tsars in Moscow, and the Bolognese Aristotle Fieravanti raised the Cathedral of the Assumption in the Kremlin, where motifs of Lombard-Romanesque architecture are united with elements characteristic of Russian art. The sixteenth century saw the rise in Poland and particularly in Krakow a whole series…

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Italy Artists from Middle Ages to the 19th Century Part 2

Italy Artists from Middle Ages to the 19th Century Part 2

In France as early as 1461 F. Laurana and Pietro da Milano were working for Renato d’Angiò; Charles VIII brought back from Italy a group of artists and artisans – even a gardener – including Guido Mazzoni who made the mausoleum in Saint-Denis, then destroyed, between Giocondo who built the bridge of Notre-Dame in Paris, Domenico from Cortona who continued to work in France until the middle of the century. XVI, drawing among other things the municipal building of Paris, destroyed in…

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Italy Artists from Middle Ages to the 19th Century Part 1

Italy Artists from Middle Ages to the 19th Century Part 1

Middle Ages. – Sporadic examples of Italian artists who are called abroad by sovereigns and prelates, have existed since the Carolingian time; but those who really started the glorious tradition of Italian art in the world were the Comacini (v.) and Campionesi masters of the Middle Ages: talented builders who worked throughout Europe. Numerous traces of their work remain: and they are for the most part purely Lombard motifs that are found, often under the coatings and additions of later ages, in the…

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Economic Activity within and outside the Italy Peninsula Part 4

Economic Activity within and outside the Italy Peninsula Part 4

Their financial position, credit and political influence are strengthened by the close relationship in which, at a certain time, they enter with the Holy See. To Italian banks and their branches abroad, the curia entrusts the fiduciary deposit and the transmission to Rome of the sums collected by the collectors of ecclesiastical tithes and income in all parts of the Catholic world, which have grown considerably after the Gregorian reform, which it wanted to be and it was also a strongly…

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Economic Activity within and outside the Italy Peninsula Part 3

Economic Activity within and outside the Italy Peninsula Part 3

But next to them, the very numerous stable population nuclei, which usually are part of a larger city, but sometimes constitute a city in itself, distinct from the other, as in Altoluogo, near ancient Ephesus, at the mouth of the road Baghdād-Constantinople on the Aegean, where, in the 1300s, the Turkish city is high up and the Italian city along the marina. They are the true colonies of the new mercantile bourgeoisie, true offshoots of the motherland, with institutions modeled on…

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Economic Activity within and outside the Italy Peninsula Part 2

Economic Activity within and outside the Italy Peninsula Part 2

According to lawschoolsinusa, this mercantile activity, given the position of the peninsula between the European world and the Greek and Islamic world, soon greatly expanded its sphere. Beyond geography, history helped: that is a certain cosmopolitan tradition, nourished by Rome and the papacy, which later became almost nature. It was moved from the peninsula, in the century. XI, the counter-offensive against Islam and the reconquest of the central Mediterranean. In the century XII and at the beginning of the 13th century, Venetians, Pisans, Genoese, masters…

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Economic Activity within and outside the Italy Peninsula Part 1

Economic Activity within and outside the Italy Peninsula Part 1

Ephemeral unity therefore, after the Ghihellina one, also this papal, Angevin, Guelph unity. Ephemeral, as a unit of domination or political control over the whole peninsula. But both are important as an index and cause of common elements of life, common tendencies and passions and thoughts, from the Alps to Sicily; as an index and cause of corrosion and relaxation of municipal institutions and spirits. This phase of Italian life, marked by the papal, Guelph and Angevin prevalence, is also a phase of…

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Italy Arts – the Flourishing Renaissance Part 4

Italy Arts – the Flourishing Renaissance Part 4

While the flourishing Renaissance was taking place, the eclectics arose, led by Sebastiano del Piombo, who put the Venetian tradition in harmony with the Florentine one. Wonderful assimilator of other people’s forms, under the inspiration of Giorgione or Titian, Raphael or Michelangelo, he gives his forms a common imprint of solemn constructive fixity, the same seal of broad and firm style. When Sebastiano was working in Rome, painting in Florence was in crisis. The particular disturbance of a civilization in the slope is…

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Italy Arts – the Flourishing Renaissance Part 3

Italy Arts – the Flourishing Renaissance Part 3

A group of Michelangelo’s artists from central and southern Italy, Tribolo, Bandinelli, Montorsoli, Ammannati, Dall’Opera, Benvenuto Cellini, Vincenzo Danti, Caccavello and Naccherino, find correspondences with the Michelangelo’sists in Lombardy and Emilia, Prospero Clemente, the two Lions, the Della Porta family, while the Venetian Michelangeloists are headed by Iacopo Sansovino: Alessandro Vittoria, Girolamo Campagna, Danese Cattaneo, Tiziano Aspetti and later Lombardo. Giambologna arrives, who in marble reduces Michelangelo’s forms to pure academy, while in bronze he finds futuristic forms and pictorial…

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Italy Arts – the Flourishing Renaissance Part 2

Italy Arts – the Flourishing Renaissance Part 2

Buonarroti Antonio da San Gallo the Younger followed, who gradually passed from Bramante’s taste to Michelangelo’s; Vasari, Ammannati and Buontalenti, who went towards the pictorial at Palazzo Pitti and in the Medici Casino; Vignola who sometimes, holding back his Michelangeloism, materially followed Bramante, this other came to pure pictorial, as in the Palazzo Bocchi in Bologna and in the staircase of the Caprarola palace. Giacomo della Porta also followed, who translated Michelangelo’s architecture into the academy; Domenico Fontana and Martino Longhi who made the…

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Italy Arts – the Flourishing Renaissance Part 1

Italy Arts – the Flourishing Renaissance Part 1

The greatest precursor of the sixteenth century in terms of architecture, was Donato Bramante (1444-1514). His constructions are certainly less pure, less aristocratic, less classical than those of Brunelleschi and Luciano Laurana; they reflect a changing temperament that oscillates from the tendency towards smooth, expansive Lucian surfaces to the love of grandiose overhangs and powerful Roman shadows; freely created motifs overflow; the purely classical elements are accompanied by elements of medieval origin; classicism returns to dominate the overall effect only for the monumental character that…

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Greece History – the Theban Hegemony Part II

Greece History – the Theban Hegemony Part II

Almost at the same time, the wars that were to lead to the dissolution of the Boeotic hegemony and the Athenian maritime league began. In the Aegean, Chios, Kos and Rhodes, stirred up by Mausolus of Caria, joined forces with each other and with Byzantium, that war of secession began against Athens which is known as the social war of the Athenians (357). In central Greece Thebes, which together with its Thessalian allies predominated in the Delphic amphictyonic, tried by…

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