Canada Guide

Canada Guide

Canada – country information

Country name Canada
Official name Canada
Capital Ottawa
Continent North America
Area 9,970,610 km2
Population 35,295,770 (2013)
Foundation of a state 1/7/1867
The highest mountains Mt. Logan 5951m, Mt. Waddington 4042 m
Longest rivers Mackenzie-Athabasca 4240 km, St. Lawrence 3058 km
The largest lakes Upper (part) 89,270 km 2, Huron 59,596 km 2
State system a pluralistic federal constitutional monarchy with a bicameral parliament
The biggest cities Toronto 4,050,000, Montreal 3,275,000, Vancouver 1,675,000, Ottawa (capital city) 960,000, Edmonton 880,000
Official language English, French
Ethnicity/National Composition British 34.7%, French 25.8%, German 3.6%, Italian 2.8%, Ukrainian 1.7%, Native American and Inuit (Eskimo) 1.5%, Chinese 1.5%, Dutch 1, 4%, others 27.0%
Religious affiliation Roman Catholic 46.5%, Protestant 41%, Orthodox 1.5%, Jewish 1.2%, Muslim 0.4%, Hindu 0.3%, Sikh 0.3%, Atheist 7.4%, Other 1, 4%
Currency 1 Canadian dollar = 100 cents
gross domestic product (GDP) US$42,317 (2012)
Average life expectancy of the population 80.22 years (2006)
Structure of GDP agriculture, forestry and fishing 2.1%, mining 3.9%, industry 19.0%, construction 6.5%, services 68.5%

Canada – Neighboring States

State Capital Area Population
USA Washington, DC 9,629,090 km2 317,706,000

Country overview

According to Abbreviationfinder, Canada occupies most of the northern half of the North American continent. It has a similar economy and culture to the United States in many ways, so many may consider it a sort of satellite of that country. However, the reality is completely different. Canada was created as a bilingual and bicultural society of people of French and British descent. Today, its population is made up of a diverse mix of ethnic groups, many of which maintain their own cultural traditions, contributing to the specific character of Canadian society.

Canada, whose territory is larger than the United States, is the second largest country in the world after Russia. However, in terms of population, it ranks among medium to less populated countries.

Country data

Location: North America

Time zone: CET – 4.5 in the east (up to CET – 9 in the west)

Total area: 9,984,670 km²

Land area: 9,093,507 km²

Water area: 891,163 km²

Length of the state border: 8,893 km

Bordering countries apply to:
USA: 8,893 km

Coastline: 202,080 km

Capital: Ottawa

Governorates: 13
Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Northwest Territories, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory

Electric current: 110/120 V / 60 Hz

Telephone code: 00 1 (Source: Allcitycodes)

Highest point: Mount Logan 5,959 m


Population: approx. 34.8 million residents (Countryaah, 2021)

Population growth: 0.8% per year

Population density (residents per km²): 3.5

Life expectancy: 79 (male), 84 (female)

Official language: English, French


  • 40% Roman Catholic
  • 20% Protestants
  • 3% Muslim
  • 2% Hindu
  • 35% other


Arctic temperatures dominate in the country, with temperatures as low as -30 ° C in winter. Only along a narrow southern strip are moderate climates achieved.

The mountains running from east to west also allow Arctic air currents to flow through the country unhindered.

In summer it can get up to 35 ° C.


The annual precipitation is about twice as high as in Germany.

Currency / finance

Currency unit: Canadian dollar (CAD)

Division: 1 dollar = 100 cents

ATMs: Available in many cities.

International credit cards: Accepted almost everywhere. The exchange rate is often cheaper than paying in cash.

Regulations: Foreign and national currencies can be imported and exported in unlimited amounts. A declaration is required from an equivalent value of CAD 10,000.

Customs regulations

The following may be carried duty-free:

  • 200 cigarettes and 50 cigars and 200g tobacco
  • 1 liter of alcoholic beverages
  • small amounts of perfume

(Information applies to people aged 18 and over)

Tourists and people in transit can bring items of personal use with them duty-free.

All imports of plants, animals and food of all kinds must be declared.

Travel advice

Some security measures have been reinforced to protect against terrorist attacks. For example, extended controls at airports can be expected.

When entering the country by air, an electronic entry permit must be obtained beforehand. This is not necessary if you are entering the country by land.

Behavioral advice

Consuming alcohol in public is prohibited in Canada.

Open alcoholic beverages must not be within reach of the driver in vehicles. You should only transport all relevant drinks in the trunk.


As one of the countries with the highest industrial standards, Canada has many industries, with agriculture being the most developed. Many of the products made are exported.

Tourism has become an increasingly important economic factor in the Canadian economy in recent years.

Industries: Chemical industry, natural gas and oil production, fishing, wood processing, agriculture, food production, machine and vehicle construction, metal processing, tourism

Natural resources: iron ore, natural gas, petroleum, fish, gold, wood, coal, copper, nickel, silver, zinc, hydropower

Land use:

  • Usable land: 5%
  • Grain cultivation: 0%
  • Pasture area: 3%
  • Forests: 54%
  • other: 38%


A few million years ago, Canada was almost completely covered by a mighty ice sheet, which after melting turned the country into a fertile oasis with an enormous number of lakes.

The large lakes include Great Bear Lake, Great Slave Lake, Winniepegsee and Lake Athabasca.

Due to the high annual rainfall (twice as high as in Germany) the many plant species and forests could develop very well. Boreal coniferous forest, forest tundra and tundra can be found here. Deciduous trees also grow in the south-east due to the influence of Atlantic currents.

Pine, cedar, fir and spruce trees grow abundantly across the country. However, Canada’s nature is endangered and currently only has 10% of its forest cover from around 200 years ago.

The Canadian plateau landscape is between 200 and 600 meters above sea level, only in Labrador it reaches 1,500 meters.

The east of the country is made up of the Appalachian Mountains and the lowlands around the Great Lakes and the Saint Lawrence River. The Appalachian Mountains are a well-worn mountain range that only reaches greater heights in the United States. In the lowlands there are wide plains that are heavily used for agriculture.

The Rocky Mountains lead from the USA along the Eastern Range of Canada. The highest mountain in the east range is Mount Robson at 3,954 meters. Some other peaks in the east of the country reach the 3,500 meter mark.


Deer, elk and bears (brown, black and grizzly bears) are the main representatives of Canada’s wildlife.

Particularly noteworthy are the red deer -Wapitis- (only in North America).

Inland in the plains are mainly bison and coyotes. Pumas and mountain goats are also relatively widespread in the mountains.

Foxes, martens and beavers are at home in the vast forests. Caribou, musk ox, arctic fox and lemmings are native to the tundras of Canada.

The native flora and fauna are protected by species in numerous national parks and nature reserves.

The largest protected area is the 45,000 square kilometer Wood Buffalo National Park, in which numerous endangered species can be found.

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