Canada Brief History
After my first visit to Canada, when I traveled around the provinces of British Columbia and Alberta in the western part, my interest in this large and beautiful country was aroused, so I decided to go back and explore the eastern parts of the country as well. I who rarely visit a country more than once!
My journey began and ended in Montreal. To be able to visit the places I selected when I planned the trip, I rented a car for maximum flexibility and after 5,428 kilometers of driving, my round trip was complete. The distances between places are often large and the maximum speed on most roads is 90 km / h, so you have to reckon with the fact that it can sometimes take quite a long time to move. The Canadian traffic flows calmly and it is rare to see accidents on the roads, I myself only saw one. After my tour, I had visited the provinces of Quebec (QE), New Brunswick (NB), Prince Edward Island (PEI), Nova Scotia (NS) and Ontario (ON).
I walked in some national parks, went on whale safaris in Tadoussac (QE) and in Pleasant Bay (NS), visited small charming towns such as Fredericton (NB), Charlottetown (PEI) and Lunenburg (NS) (which are on the UNESCO list over World Heritage Sites) and I visited metropolises such as Montreal (QE), Quebec (QE), Halifax (NS) and the country’s capital Ottowa (ON).
To get to Prince Edward Island, I chose to drive the 13 km long bridge Confederation Bridge, the bridge is one of the longest in the world.
During my trip I met many nice Canadians, in general you can probably say that the English speakers are slightly nicer than the French speakers.
Total hiking distance during this trip was 211 kilometers.
For those interested in nature, Canada is as close to a paradise as you can get!
Go here and enjoy the, largely untouched nature, encounters with animals and the fine hiking trails that are everywhere. The Canadians are also good at keeping them in good condition. If you want an extra strong nature experience, come here in the autumn and experience the enormous color splendor when the trees are dressed in different colors.
Canada history in brief
Canada history, older
According to A2zgov, researchers agree that the first humans to come to Canada about 12,000 years ago did so by crossing today’s Bering Strait between Siberia and Alaska. At this time there was a land connection here. The oldest settlements from 9,500 BC have been found on the prairie and far east in the province of New Brunswick. The area was then sparsely populated by different ethnic groups.
The Vikings were the first Europeans to come to Canada. They built a settlement at L’Anse aux Meadows on Newfoundland around the year 1,000 AD. . The settlement that was excavated in the mid-1960s is today a major tourist attraction. The Vikings are considered to have come from Norway via Iceland and Greenland. They stayed in L’Anse aux Meadows for a few years, before being forced to leave the area after fighting with the Dorset Inuit.
It was not until 1497 that European contacts resumed when the Italian Giovanni Caboto (John Cabot) rediscovered the east coast of Canada when he sailed to Newfoundland under the English flag.
The colonization of the country began in 1534 began with the Frenchman Jacues Cartier, who was actually looking for a waterway to China and India. He sailed down the St Lawrence River to the first rapids where present-day Montreal is located, calling the area Canada after the Iroquois Indians’ village.
The first permanent settlements were established by the colonizers in the 17th century when the trade in furs began to increase in size. The city of Quebec was founded in 1608 and then Montreal was founded. The French called the colony La Nouvelle France.
Most of the Indians who lived in the area lived as nomads, but also engaged in small-scale agriculture and fishing. Many Native American groups participated in the fur trade during the 17th and 18th centuries and thus entered the money economy. Violence and disease brought by the colonizers caused the number of Indians to decline rapidly.
France and England competed to establish colonies in North America. The fur trade developed profitably, and in 1670 the Hudson Bay Company, an English company, received permission from the King of England to take control of large tracts of land at Hudson Bay.
The wars between England and France in Europe also affected the colonies in North America. In connection with the peace of Utrecht in 1713, France handed over parts of Canada (Newfoundland and present-day Nova Scotia) to Great Britain.
The battles between the French and the British continued both in Europe and in the colonies during the 18th century. In a decisive and bloody battle outside the city of Québec in 1759, the British defeated the French troops and in 1763 France was forced to hand over most of its colony in Canada to Great Britain.
The French, who then made up the majority of Canada’s population, were allowed to retain their language, Catholic religion and legal system under the Quebec Act of 1774. After this, the British began to immigrate in increasing numbers. They settled mainly in Upper Canada (now Ontario). The French continued to dominate in Quebec.
The French-Canadian uprising with demands for increased autonomy 1837-1838 was provoked by difficult economic conditions and political dissatisfaction. British forces crushed the revolt and the political influence of the French-speaking Canadians was reduced.
Ties between Britain’s various colonies in North America were strengthened by clashes between British and American forces in 1812. In 1867, the so-called British North America Act was passed by the British Parliament, which united Upper Canada (Ontario), Lower Canada (Quebec), New Brunswick and Nova Scotia to a federal state. British Columbia on the west coast of Canada had been given the status of a British colony a few years earlier.
During the years 1869 to 1873, Canada was further expanded and included British Columbia, Manitoba, Prince Edward Island and the Northwest Territories, in 1905 Alberta and Saskatchewan joined.
The first Canadian Parliament was established in Ottawa in 1867 and John Alexander MacDonald was appointed the first Federal Prime Minister. He led a conservative party, formed in 1854, which dominated Canadian politics for most of the second half of the 19th century. The party was mainly challenged by the Liberal Party (formed 1867), which ruled the country 1896–1911.
Economic growth at the beginning of the 20th century was created through the extraction of the rich natural resources, the cultivation of the prairie and a rapid industrialization in the eastern parts. During this period, immigration to Canada increased markedly
History of Canada 1926 – 1999
The United Kingdom gave Canada the right to conduct international negotiations independently
The country gained status as a completely independent state
The Liberal Party ruled the country
The Canadian federal state was completed with the accession of Newfoundland
PCP won the parliamentary elections and thus gained power
The “Silent Revolution” began in Quebec. The province was financially disadvantaged and the business community was dominated by English speakers. The Liberal provincial government carried out extensive reforms to strengthen the position of the French-Canadians and to modernize Québec. The reforms contributed to the emergence of a French-speaking middle class and helped to strengthen self-esteem and nationalism. To bring the province closer to the federation, Trudeau pushed through a language law that made French the official language alongside English.
The Liberal Party regained power
Pierre Elliot Trudeau was elected Prime Minister. He criticizes the American bombings in Vietnam
The conflict between French-speakers and English-speakers in Québec intensified and the extremist group, the Front for Québec’s Liberation (FLQ), was formed. They kidnapped and murdered the province’s labor minister and carried out several bombings, resulting in the introduction of emergency laws and the detention of hundreds of people in Quebec. The harsh methods helped to strengthen the position of the separatists
The separatist Québec Party (PQ) won the provincial election on the promise of holding a referendum on independence in Québec. PQ wanted political independence, but maintained economic ties with the rest of the country
PQ lost the vote on independence for Québec
Trudeau succeeded in agreeing with all the provinces, except Québec, to give the country its own constitution. At the same time, he pushed through two amendments to the constitution that were supported by the English-speaking provinces, but which were rejected by Québec
Trudeau resigned as party leader. In the fall, the Conservatives, led by Brian Mulroney, won the federal election. The new government privatized state-owned enterprises, removed barriers for foreign investors, and began cutting back on the social programs introduced by the Liberals. Mulroney also wanted a solution to the “Québec issue”, but Québec made several demands to approve the new constitution
Mulroney managed to get all the provincial leaders to accept the so-called Meech Lake agreement that went to Québec. In return, Québec promised to approve the constitution. The agreement was criticized from some quarters for giving too much influence to Québec, while not giving the indigenous peoples the same protection as the French-speakers
The Meech Lake Agreement was dissolved when the provincial parliaments of Manitoba and Newfoundland refused to approve it.
Following the failure of the Meech Lake Agreement, the government’s problem with separatism in Quebec remained, which is why a new agreement was negotiated, the so-called Charlottetown Agreement. It was approved by the leaders of the three largest parties and all provincial leaders. Under the agreement, Québec would be given special status and increased powers, and other provinces would also be given more power at the expense of the federal government. In a referendum in the autumn, the agreement was rejected
In June, Defense Secretary Kim Campbell became prime minister. In the parliamentary elections in November, the ruling party won only two seats. Power was taken over by the Liberals under Jean Chrétien. The separatist Québec Bloc (BQ) became the largest opposition party
After the Québec Party (PQ) won the provincial election in Québec, a new referendum was held on independence. The separatists lost by a narrow margin. Turnout was high and over 60 percent of French speakers voted for a separation
In the June elections, the Liberals won 155 of the 301 seats and were thus able to form a government again. The right-wing populist Reform Party, based in western Canada, became the largest opposition party
All provinces, except Québec, agreed on a declaration recognizing Québec’s unique character. It was stipulated that all constitutional amendments made regarding the powers of the provinces would cover all provinces. The Supreme Court later ruled that no province could unilaterally leave the federation without prior negotiations with the Ottawa government.