From the 7th c. AD Kuwait was part of the Arab Caliphate. From the 13th century to con. 15th c. the territory of Kuwait, then called Kurain, was ruled by sheikhs of local Arab tribes. All R. 17th century Kurane was formally included in the Ottoman Empire, but strong local power remained. In 1680, during the reign of Sheikh Barraq al-Hamid (1669–82), the fortified port city of El Kuwait was built. Qurayn reached its peak during the reign of Sheikh Sadun al-Hamid (1691-1722). In 1756, Sheikh Sabah ibn Jaber al-Sabah united all the tribes into the Emirate of Kuwait. To con. 18th century in Central Arabia, the state of the Saudis strengthened, but he failed to conquer Kuwait. In 1777, the British persuaded the Emir of Kuwait, Abdullah ibn Sabah al-Sabah, to establish friendly relations, but the rulers of Kuwait did not agree to treaty relations with Great Britain. In 1793, a trading post of the East India Company was founded in El Kuwait. In the beginning. 1870s Kuwait received the status of a kazy (district) of the Basor vilayet of the Ottoman Empire, and the emir was recognized as the governor of the sultan. Kuwait attracted the special attention of European powers in con. 19th century in connection with the German plan to stretch the Baghdad railway to the port of Kuwait. Sheikh Mubarak ibn Sabah al-Sabah, seeking to protect the country from the Turkish invasion, in 1899 signed a secret agreement with Great Britain, according to which the latter was responsible for Kuwait’s foreign policy. Kuwait actually turned into a British protectorate. In October 1913, an Anglo-Kuwaiti treaty was concluded, according to which Great Britain was endowed with exclusive rights to explore and extract oil in Kuwait. In November 1914, Great Britain recognized Kuwait as an independent principality under its protectorate.
In 1918–22, according to localcollegeexplorer, Kuwait became involved in border conflicts with Najd (where the Saudis ruled) and Iraq. In December 1922, through the mediation of Great Britain, an agreement was signed on the transfer of part of the territory of Nejd to Kuwait and Iraq and on the creation of border Kuwait-Saudi and Iraqi-Saudi zones (since 1942 received the status of a neutral zone), free for nomads. In April 1923, the British contributed to the inclusion of the islands belonging to Iraq at the mouth of the Shatt al-Arab River into Kuwait. Since 1927, Kuwait has effectively become a British colony. On June 19, 1961, Great Britain renounced its rights in Kuwait and the independence of the State of Kuwait was proclaimed. Six days later, Iraq declared its sovereignty over these lands. Britain and Saudi Arabia provided military assistance to protect the integrity of Kuwait, deploying troops to the border of Kuwait and Iraq. In August 1962, by decision of the League of Arab States, British troops replaced Sudanese, Jordanian and Egyptian troops. Relations between Iraq and Kuwait improved only after 1963. In 1966, the Saudi-Kuwaiti neutral zone was divided in half between the countries. In the 1960s and 70s. Kuwait quickly enriched itself through oil exports, directing the funds received to improve the economy and living standards of the population, help Arab countries, and foreign investment. In the 1970s most of the oil industry was nationalized. The economic success of Kuwait contributed to immigration, already in the 1970s. the majority of the population were from other countries. In 1976, the emir dissolved the parliament and some articles of the constitution were suspended. A new National Assembly was elected in 1981, then disbanded in 1986. On August 2, 1990, a hundred thousandth Iraqi army invaded Kuwait, and Iraq announced the annexation of Kuwait. Hundreds of thousands of people fled the country. 700 oil wells were set on fire. The fires had severe consequences for the environment. On January 17, 1991, based on the decision of the UN Security Council, an action began to liberate Kuwait by a coalition of 29 countries led by the United States, which was successfully completed by February 26. After the restoration of the power of the al-Sabah dynasty, mass arrests took place in the country, thousands of Palestinians were deported. In order to guarantee its security, Kuwait at the beginning. 1990s concluded agreements on military cooperation with the United States, Great Britain, France, the Russian Federation. Kuwait went to expand the American military presence on its territory, the deployment of an American brigade of troops, base of the US Air Force and other allies. As early as July 1991, Kuwait resumed oil exports. In 1993, export earnings exceeded pre-war levels. The first post-war parliamentary elections were held in 1992. During the American military action to overthrow the Hussein regime in Iraq, Kuwait provided its territory for the troops of the anti-Iraq coalition. Emir Sheikh Jaber al-Ahmed al-Jaber al-Sabah has been at the head of state since December 31, 1977. The government is headed by Crown Prince Sheikh Saad al-Abdallah al-Salem al-Sabah.