The years that followed the end of the Second World War marked for the Brazil a new and dynamic phase of economic development and general progress. Its international prestige also appeared to have increased especially among Latin American countries, of which it has assumed the role of leader on the world political scene. However, the Brazil, as indeed almost all the countries of Latin America, fails to overcome the economic-financial crisis, the symptoms of which were felt since 1948. In the same year the government of General Dutra – ousted the communists from politics and the well-known leader Luis Carlos Prestes took refuge abroad – he intensified the application of the five-year plan which was not completed, however, as it proved to be too burdensome for the country’s economy. In the presidential election of 1950, Trabalist, supported by the Social Progressives and the Communists. General Gomez, former commander of the Brazilian air forces in Italy, brought by the Unione Democratica Nacional and supported by the government was defeated. Vargas had to fight against all sorts of economic difficulties which he tried to overcome by making the state take over the oil monopoly through the Petrobras company, which was not, however, able to develop the planned program. With Vargas the relations of Brazil with the USA always overcame the resentments aroused by the American indifference towards Brazilian economic problems: a military assistance pact was signed between the two countries on March 15, 1952. Meanwhile, the situation of economic hardship worsened due to growing inflation and the coffee crisis and Vargas, to cope with the incessant increase in the cost of living affecting the less well-off classes, on 1 May 1954 he promulgated a decree that doubled the minimum wage of workers, however arousing lively discontent among conservatives and military who also accused him of having concluded agreements with Perón and Chile unbeknownst to parliament. The mistaken killing (5 August) of an Air Force major during an attack against the director of the Tribuna da Imprensa, irreducible opponent of Vargas, induced the military leaders to invite the president to resign: at dawn on the 24th Vargas killed himself. With the death of Vargas, a period of confusion began in the government of the country: the vice president João Café Filho took office in the presidency of the Republic and surrounded himself with a predominantly right-wing government, preventing any subversive uprising. On 3 October 1955, the candidate of the Social Democratic Party Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira was elected to the highest office in the state, while João Goulart, former Minister of Labor in the Vargas government, was appointed to the vice presidency. The two elected had the votes of the Communists (about 400 thousand) against the candidacy of General Tavora. The incumbent, Café Filho, he resigned for health reasons and was replaced (November 8) by the President of the Chamber Carlos Coimbra da Luz, a well-known opponent of Kubitschek. The military intervened who did not consider the replacement constitutional and brought to power the president of the senate Nereu Ramos (11 November), who immediately imposed a state of siege thus guaranteeing order in the country until the settlement of Kubitschek (31 January 1956). The new president has set out to restore the national economy by promoting its development through a new five-year plan which tends to strengthen the basic services of electricity and transport as well as increase the production of capital and consumer goods that Brazil is forced to import, to introduce new methods in agriculture and to develop the economy of vast depressed areas. Relations with the USA have improved. In the many meetings promoted by the Organization of American States, Brazil has always been the most valid ally of the USA and has often interposed his good offices to settle the differences that have arisen between North and Central-South Americans. The good relations between the two countries are witnessed by the grant of 350 thousand dollars for the plant of a nuclear reactor in Brazil (April 19, 1956) and the authorization to the USA to exploit the island of Fernando de Noronha for installations relating to bullets remote controlled (January 21, 1957). On the other hand, Brazil denounced the agreement for the exclusive sale of atomic minerals to the USA (August 31, 1956). Kubitschek, despite the many initiatives in all economic sectors, initiatives often crowned with success, it has not yet managed to heal the economic situation and has had to face a series of protest strikes and riots also fomented by the military. A particular reason for heated controversy was offered by the effort made by Kubitschek to complete the onerous construction of Brasilia, the new capital solemnly inaugurated on April 21, 1960. Rio de Janeiro, the former capital, has become a new state of the Republic, with the name of Guanabara. For Brazil 2001, please check naturegnosis.com.
Kubitschek has tried to contrast the internal difficulties with greater dynamism in its foreign policy by trying to forge greater ties with other Latin American countries (joint declarations with Chile, of 20 September 1957 and with Ecuador, of 7 March 1958, economic agreements with Peru, of 29 November 1957 and with Bolivia, of 28 March 1958) and with Europe. In particular, the visits made by the President of Portugal, General Craveiro Lopes (June 1957), which ended with a declaration urging the execution of the November 1953 treaty concerning the creation of a Luso-Brazilian community, should be remembered; and that of President Giovanni Gronchi, received triumphantly (September 1958) and concluded with the “declaration of São Paulo”, of 10 September, which calls for greater solidarity within the Latin world. With regard to the USA, Kubitschek, assuming the role of spokesman for Latin America, promoted in a letter to Eisenhower (June 6, 1958) the so-called “Pan-American operation” (OPA) for the revision of Pan-Americanism and the study of the means to revive the depressed areas of the continent threatened by communism. But despite a meeting of 21 American foreign ministers which took place in Washington on 23-24 September 1958, the takeover bid did not have the desired outcome and on 4 August 1959 the new Brazilian Foreign Minister Lafer, who replaced Negrão de Lima, declared that Pan-Americanism was no longer sufficient and that it was necessary to broaden the diplomatic horizon of the Brazil thereby letting it be understood that it was necessary to reconsider the debated problem of economic relations with the USSR and with the countries of Eastern Europe. Shortly after, a Brazilian trade mission to Moscow (December 1959) concluded an agreement concerning the export of coffee. These facts – coupled with the intense Sino-Soviet propaganda in Latin America, Mikoyan’s trips to Mexico and Cuba (November 1959 and February 1960) and the bold reforms implemented in Cuba by Fidel Castro should not be unrelated to the journey undertaken in February. of 1960 by Eisenhower in some countries of South America, first of all the Brazil who welcomed him warmly. The US and Brazilian presidents signed a “declaration of Brasilia” in which faith in democratic freedoms is reaffirmed and the right of the American peoples to a better standard of living in the moral and material field is recognized. The elections of 3 October 1960 saw the defeat of the government candidate, Marshal Henrique Teixeira Lott, who should have continued the policy of “development with inflation”. The new president of the Brazil, presented with a center-right program, is the former governor of the state of São Paulo, Jânio Quadros. You see presented with a center-right program, is the former governor of the state of São Paulo, Jânio Quadros. You see presented with a center-right program, is the former governor of the state of São Paulo, Jânio Quadros.