Bosnia and Herzegovina Recent History
Declaration of Independence
Night Tito’s death, conditions in the country worsened and the problematic economic situation led to increasing dissatisfaction among the population. The new government violently suppressed all democratic movements, for example the student uprising in Kosovo in 1981. The nationalists received stronger support from the population.
In 1987 Slobodan Milošević was appointed chairman of the Serbian Communist Party. He immediately began to develop the supremacy of the Serbs, which was viewed critically by the other republics.
When there were free elections in 1990, three parties emerged in Bosnia and Herzegovina, each predominantly representing one ethnic group. There was a party for the Bosniaks, one for the Serbs and one for the Croats. The new government had a survey carried out on the whereabouts of Yugoslavia. The Croats and Bosniaks spoke out in favor of leaving, the Serbs abstained. The independence was proclaimed on March 3 1,992th
The Bosnian War (1992-1995)
According to mysteryaround, the Serbs in Bosnia and Herzegovina were against leaving Yugoslavia and founded their own state independently of the rest of the government. With the support of the Yugoslav army (which also wanted to prevent the exit of Bosnia and Herzegovina), they took action against the Croats and Bosniaks in order to maintain power over the country and to reconnect it to Yugoslavia.
As early as May 1992, their military strength had brought two thirds of the country under their control. In addition, the coalition of Croatians and Bosniaks dissolved because the two parties fell out. The civil war was now taking place between all three ethnic groups, with the Muslim Bosniaks being the worst equipped.
The United Nations tried to settle the conflict and wanted to divide the country into three independent parts. But the Serbs claimed at least half of the country. Despite efforts and protection zones, fighting and attacks continued, in which more than two million people were killed by the end of the war.
The Srebrenica massacre
War crimes such as the Srebrenica genocide in July 1995 are indicative of the cruel “ethnic cleansing” in the Bosnian war. This is the term used to describe the cruel murder of people based on their ethnicity. Many Bosnian Muslims fled from the clashes in places of refuge such as Srebrenica.
However, the place was not adequately protected and was soon taken by the Serbian troops, who murdered more than 7,000 people, mostly Bosniaks. To date, not all culprits have been brought to justice. The Srebrenica massacre thus also stands for the international community to look the other way at crimes against humanity.
However, on July 19, 2019, the Supreme Court of the Netherlands upheld a ruling that held the Netherlands jointly responsible for the deaths of 350 Muslim men in July 1995.
It was only in September 1993 that talks took place between the leader of the Croatians and that of the Serbs, who signed a ceasefire agreement the following spring. The newly established “Bosniak-Croatian Federation” received two thirds of the land. However, the attacks did not end.
After massive military operations, peace negotiations and the Dayton Agreement finally took place in December 1995. The three representatives of the ethnic groups – Slobodan Milošević (Serbia), Franjo Tudjman (Croatia) and Alija Izetbegovic (Bosnia) – agreed on a compromise after the country existed as a unified Bosnia and Herzegovina, but within the country both a Serbian and a Serbian a Bosniak-Croatian sub-area should be established. Every ethnic group should be represented equally in government.
In the years following the agreement, elections were held, a common currency introduced and a common economic area established. The construction of the country has not yet been completed and some war criminals have never been brought to justice. Nevertheless, apart from occasional tensions, the country is peaceful today.
On December 5, 2019, the parliament expressed its confidence in the new government under Zoran Tegeltija. Since 1998 he has been a member of the SNSD, the strongest party of the Serbs in Bosnia and Herzegovina. He has been Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina since December 23, the day he was sworn in. He is the head of state of Bosnia and Herzegovina.