Population. – According to the census of June 1933, the population of the Commonwealth amounted to 6,629,839 residents, compared to 6,284,394 in 1928, with an absolute increase in the five-year period of 345,445 residents, and an annual percentage increase of 1.09.
If we look at the figures of the individual states, it appears that the most conspicuous annual increases occurred in Northern and Central Australia (2.8%) and in the Federal Territory (2.3%), followed by Western Australia (1.9) and Tasmania (1.6), while minimum values occur in South Australia (0.1), Queensland (0.7) and Victoria (0.8).
This increase is now exclusively due to the natural increase of the population, since not only, following the known restrictive laws, for years immigration has only made a minimal contribution to the demographic increase, but indeed in 1935 the emigrations exceeded, albeit by little, immigration. Although the natural increase is significantly reduced, Australia with a birth rate of 16.9 per thousand (1932) is in second place in the world (27.2 per thousand in 1911).
The density is still very low, counting just 0.86 residents per sq km. The south-eastern states are still more populated, namely Victoria (6.7 residents per sq. Km), Tasmania (3.4) and New South Wales (3.2). The phenomenon of urbanism, already very serious, has further accentuated, so much so that in 1933 only 35.9 per thousand of the population lived in the countryside (37.4 per thousand in 1921). All the major centers are therefore showing a significant increase: Sydney (1,254,000 residents in 1935), Melbourne (1,000,000 residents) Adelaide, (315,000), Brisbane (309,000), Perth (210,000).
The 1933 census showed that 96.9% of the population is of British nationality. Among the other nationalities, the Italians are in first place with 0.3%, whose absolute number from 8135, how many were in 1921, has risen to 18,558. The Germans and Scandinavians follow with 0.2% respectively, while the Chinese are now reduced to 0.1%. The indigenous people, who are not included in the census, are estimated to be around 60,000 (1932), mainly distributed in Western Australia (26,000) and Northern Australia (17,000) and Queensland (14,000). There are about 20,000 mestizos.
The world crisis, which was also severely felt in Australia, has affected the migratory movement, both by contracting immigration and by increasing emigration. In 1935 the emigrants exceeded the immigrants by 289, while still in 1928 the surplus given by the immigration was of 27,232 people.
As can be seen from the attached table, the Italians are in 2nd place among immigrants.
Economic conditions (p. 411). – Sheep farming, on which the Commonwealth economy is based, is continuously increasing and Australia with a total of 111.5 million sheep now surpasses any country in the world. The number of cattle, which marked a sharp decline between 1921 and 1925, is now in a notable recovery.
The global rise in metal prices has stimulated Australian mining production; therefore we note a very strong increase in the production of lead and zinc which appear with conspicuous figures also in exports.
As for value, gold still holds the top spot, with 7,971,343 pounds in 1935, closely followed by coal 6,646,362 pounds. For Australia 2000, please check neovideogames.com.
The harsh trials undergone during the crisis, which greatly reduced exports of agricultural products, gave a strong boost to the Australian manufacturing industry, which today, in some fields, is able to compete with British goods. The iron, steel, wool and leather industries can now also produce for export, which goes to New Zealand, southern Africa and the Far East.
In conclusion, it can be said that the essential points of the new Australian economic orientation are the development of the manufacturing industry and the increased trade relations with the Pacific countries.
Commerce (p. 414). – If the world crisis produced a notable contraction in exports which fell to 90,464.4 (thousands of pounds) in 1930-1931 against 162,030.2 in 1924-1925, an even stronger contraction occurred in imports which, from 164,744.9 of 1926-1927, in 1931-1932 they had reduced to just 42,845.6. Thus the trade balance gained by presenting a strong surplus. Both are now in a significant recovery although they are still very far from reaching the pre-crisis figures.
Statistics from 1937 reveal a significant recovery except for iron and steel for imports and for butter and flour for exports.
Communications (p. 415). – In 1935 the railway network stretched over 45,010 km. The Adelaide-Darwin transcontinental has reached Alice Springs and Birdum respectively.
Aerial communications. – Australia, in addition to the air connection with Asia and Europe consisting of the British imperial line Southampton – Rome – Brindisi – Athens – Alexandria – Baghdād – Karachi – Calcutta-Bangkok-Singapore-Darwin-Brisbane, has a network internal of 38 lines. 15 companies run it, some of which are unsubsidized. After the “Qantas Empire”, which with the “Imperial Airways” manages the imperial line, between Singapore and Brisbane, the most important is the “Australian National Airways” with 5 lines: Melbourne-Lauceston; Melbourne-King Island; Lauceston-Hobart (Tasmania); Lauceston-Flinders Island; Perth-Adelaide.
From an economic point of view, the coexistence of such numerous companies determines a dispersion of efforts; however, their activity ensures regular air links along the entire circumnavigation of Australia (Darwin – Brisbane – Sidney – Melbourne – Adelaide – Perth – Derby – Darwin) as well as the various internal connections and those with the adjacent island systems.
The development of the Australian air network, which was 26,481 km in 1935, has risen to 34,630 km. in 1936.