Afghanistan War and Politics
The so-called proxy war
This led to disputes and ultimately to intervention by the Soviet Union, which wanted to consolidate its interests in Afghanistan. The Soviet Union has been providing Afghanistan with economic support since the 1950s. The country was on the border with what was then the Soviet Union. In order to suppress the influence of radical Islam in the region and at the same time strengthen socialism, soldiers of the Soviet Union marched into Afghanistan in 1979.
As a result, a so-called proxy war took place in which, on the one hand, the Afghan government and Soviets fought against the Islamic groups, the Mujahideen, together with the USA and other countries such as Pakistan and Saudi Arabia. Weapons were also supplied to the mujahideen by the United States.
The war in Afghanistan could not be won by the Soviet Union
This war was hard to win for the Soviet Union, although they had more and better weapons. But their Afghan opponents knew the country better, had popular support and were supported from outside. In 1989 the Soviets had to leave Afghanistan. During the Soviet rule, however, the country’s infrastructure was expanded, schools and hospitals were built and Afghan women gained rights. But this situation did not last.
The Afghan government continued to fight the mujahideen, but gave up in 1992. In that year the Islamic State of Afghanistan was founded. But there were still conflicts between different groups and clans, the country found no peace. The interests were and are often too different that it was often impossible to agree.
In 1994 the Taliban emerged, originally from Pakistan and ultimately took power in many areas of Afghanistan in the course of 1994, especially in the south and west. In 1996 the Taliban, led by Mullah Omar, seized power in Kabul. However, the population also welcomed the Taliban, as they brought some order to the prevailing chaos and also took care of social issues by distributing food. In the beginning, people were ready to get involved until it was too late and the Taliban had consolidated their rule. The rights of women in particular were severely restricted.
Under the Taliban, with its leader Mohammed Omar, Afghanistan experienced a period of horror. Islam was interpreted according to the ideas of the Taliban. But the Taliban had suddenly brought peace and order back to a state that had been completely torn by war. But at a high price, because people no longer had any rights. Women in particular had to bow to the power of the Taliban. They had to wear a full body veil and girls were no longer allowed to go to school. Many things were forbidden and made a criminal offense.
The aftermath of September 11, 2001
After September 11, 2001, the US accused the Taliban and Al Qaida of having been responsible for the attacks on the World Trade Center and formed a “global coalition against terror” with other states. We now know that the attackers came from Saudi Arabia and not from Afghanistan at all. Nevertheless, the United States and its helpers believed that they could or should intervene here. Although they overthrew the rule of the Taliban, they did not lead the country to peace, but instead increased the chaos.
How it went on…
In 2001 Hamid Karzei was initially installed as president for a transitional government, but also received the most votes in the first democratic election in Afghanistan in 2004. After the victory over the Taliban, many people who had previously fled to neighboring countries returned to Afghanistan. Conversely, many Taliban fled to Pakistan, for example, to fight their compatriots from there, but also the military support that the West has now deployed. This struggle continues.
In 2001 a so-called International Security Assistance Force, or ISAF for short, was sent to Afghanistan. Their tasks were safety warnings and the reconstruction of the country. In 2014 these troops were ordered back and responsibility passed to the Afghan government. The use of these troops was and is still controversial today.
As a country located in Asia according to agooddir, Afghanistan is still in chaos. Several political and religious groups are fighting violently. Terrorist attacks, especially by the Taliban against the military, but also against civilians, are the order of the day. The security situation in Afghanistan is still very critical despite all foreign aid and support. That is why there are still discussions, because the German Bundeswehr also has soldiers in Afghanistan. In November 2016, for example, there was an attack on the German consulate general in northern Afghanistan. The uncertainties persist and people are repeatedly killed in terrorist attacks.
In 2014, Hamid Karzei was no longer allowed to stand for election. Different politicians competed against each other. Ashraf Ghani won the election and became president.
Elections 2019 in Afghanistan
At the end of September 2019 a new president was elected in Afghanistan. There were 18 candidates who ran for election, not a single woman. Three candidates withdrew their candidacies.
Mohammad Ashraf Ghani, President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, took office for the second time on March 9, 2020.